Functional Properties of Kainate Receptors
Kainic acid was first isolated from seaweed more than 40 yr ago (see McGeer et al., 1978 for a review of early work). By the mid-1970s, the excitatory and neurotoxic actions of kainate were well established, and the hypothesis that kainate acted on a specific subset of excitatory amino acid receptors had been developed (Watkins and Evans, 1981). More recent work has shown that kainate can activate several different receptor subtypes, including α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (Patneau and Mayer, 1991), kainate receptors (Agrawal and Evans, 1986; Huettner, 1990), and lower-mol wt kainate binding proteins in some species (see Henley, 1994). The current definition of these subtypes stems from a comparison of physiological responses evoked at native receptors to the behavior of cloned receptor subunits expressed in heterologous cells. AMPA receptors are formed by the subunits GluR1–4, also known as GluR-A-D (Boulter et al., 1990; Keinänen et al., 1990; Nakanishi et al., 1990). A large body of evidence indicates that postsynaptic AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory transmission throughout most of the central nervous system (CNS) (reviewed by Collingridge and Lester, 1989; Monaghan et al., 1989). Kainate activates these receptors with lower affinity than AMPA, glutamate, or quisqualate, but kainate produces a much larger steady-state current than the other agonists (Patneau and Mayer, 1991).
KeywordsGlutamate Receptor AMPA Receptor Mossy Fiber Kainic Acid Domoic Acid
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bergold, P. J., Casaccia-Bonnefil, P., Xiu-Liu, Z., and Federoff, H. J. (1993) Transsynaptic neuronal loss induced in hippocampal slice cultures by a herpes simplex virus vector expressing the GluR6 subunit of the kainate receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 6165–6169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bettler, B., Boulter, J., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., O’Shea-Greenfield, A., Deneris, E., Moll, C, Borgmeyer, U., Hollmann, M., and Heinemann, S. (1990) Cloning of a novel glutamate receptor subunit, GluR5: expression in the nervous system during development. Neuron 5, 583–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davies, J., Evans, R. H., Francis, A. A., and Watkins, J. C. (1979) Excitatory amino acid receptors and synaptic excitation in the mammalian CNS. J. Physiol. (Paris) 75,641–654.Google Scholar
- Henley, J. M., Ambrosini, A., Rodriguez-Ithurralde, D., Sudan, H., Brackley, P., Kerry, C, Mellor, I, Abutidze, K., Usherwood, P. N. R., and Barnard, E. A. (1992) Purified unitary kainate/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisooxazole propionate (AMPA) and kainate/AMPA/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with interchangeable subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 4806–4810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huntley, G. W., Rogers, S. W., Moran, T., Janssen, W., Archin, N., Vickers, J. C, Cauley, K., Heinemann, S. F., and Morrison, J. H. (1993) Selective distribution of kainate receptor subunits immunoreactivity in monkey neocortex revealed by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes glutamate receptor subunits GluR5/6/7. J. Neurosci. 13, 2965–2981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kashiwabuchi, N., Ikeda, K., Araki, K., Hirano, T., Shibuki, K., Takayama, C, Inoue, Y., Kutsuwada, T., Yagi, T., Kang, Y., Aizawa, S., and Mishina M. (1995) Impairment of motor coordination, Purkinje cell synapse formation, and cerebellar long-term depression in GluRδ2 mutant mice. Cell 81, 245–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McGeer, E. G., Olney, J. W., and McGeer, P. L., eds. (1978) Kainic Acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. Raven, NY.Google Scholar
- Puchalski, R. B., Louis, J.-C., Brose, N., Traynelis, S. F., Egebjerg, J., Kukekov, V., Wenthold, R. J., Rogers, S. W., Lin, F., Moran, T., Morrison, J. H., and Heinemann, S. F. (1994) Selective RNA editing and subunit assembly of native glutamate receptors. Neuron 13, 131–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar