1,1-Dichloroethylene

  • George W. Ware
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 106)

Abstract

1,1-Dichloroethylene (DCE), also known as vinylidene chloride, DC, 1,1-DCE, and 1,1-dichloroethene, has been used as a chemical intermediate and in the manufacture of poly vinylidene copolymers. Polymers of DCE and vinyl chloride are used as food wrap (CEH 1983). DCE is a synthetic chemical with no known natural sources (USEPA 1983). Approximately 200 million lb (0.908 million kg) of DCE were produced in 1980 (USITC 1982). Its structure and properties are shown in Table 1.

Keywords

Fatigue Toxicity Glutathione Chlorinate Adduct 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ACGIH (1982) American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists. TLVs- Threshold limit values for chemical substances in work air. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH, p 30.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen ME, Jenkins LR, (1977) Oral toxicity of 1,1-dichloroethylene in the rat: effectsof sex, age and fasting. Environ Hlth Perspect 21:157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartsch H, Malaveille C, Montesano R, Tomatis L (1975) Tissue-mediated mutagenicity of vinylidene chloride and 2-chlorobutadiene in Salmonella typhimurium. Nature 255:641–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CEH (1983) Chemical economics handbook. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Chieco P, Mosleri MT, Reynolds ES (1981) Effect of administrative vehicle on oral 1,1-dichloroethylene toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 57:146–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chieco P, Moslen MT, Reynolds ES (1982) Histochemical evidence that plasma and mitochondrial membranes are primary foci of hepatocellular injury caused by 1,1-dichloroethylene. Lab Invest 46:413–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dobbs RA, Cohen JM (1980) Carbon adsorption isotherms for toxic organics. Report no. EPA-600/80–023. USEPA Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Wastewater Treatment Division, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  8. Drevon C, Kuroki T (1979) Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride and chloroprene in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Mutat Res 67:173–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ESE (1984) Environmental Science and Engineering. Draft technologies and costs for the removal of volatile organic chemicals from potable water supplies. ESE no. 84–912-0300.Google Scholar
  10. Prepared for the USEPA Science and Technology Branch, Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. Greim H, Bonse G, Radwan Z, Reichert D, Henschler D (1975) Mutagenicity in vitro and potential carcinogenicity of chlorinated ethylenes as a function of metabolic oxirane formation. Biochem Pharmacol 24:2013–2017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hess AF, Dykesen JS, Cline GC (1981) Case studies involving removal of organic chemical compounds from ground water. Presented at preconference seminar concerning organic chemical contaminants in ground water, 1981 AWWA Annual Conference, June 7–11, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  13. IARC (1982) International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of chemicals to humans. Chemicals, industrial processes, and industries associated with cancer in humans. IARC Monographs, Vol. 1–19, suppl. 4, pp 262–264.Google Scholar
  14. Irish DD (1963) Vinylidene chloride. In: Patty FA (ed) Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd Ed, Vol II. John Wiley and Sons, NY. pp 1305–1309.Google Scholar
  15. Jacobson-Kram D (1986) The reproductive effects assessment group’s review of the mutagenicity of vinylidene chloride. Environ Mutag 8:161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jaeger RJ, Conolly RB, Murphy SD (1974) Effect of 18 hr fast and glutathione depletion on 1,1-dichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity and lethality in rats. Exp Mol Path 20:187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jenkins LF Jr, Trabulus MJ, Murphy SD (1972) Biochemical effects of 1,1-dichloroethylene in rats: Comparison with carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dichloroethylene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 23:501–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones BK, Hathway DE (1978a) The biological fate of vinylidene chloride in rats. Chem Biol Interact 20:27–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones BK, Hathway DE (1978b) Differences in metabolism of vinylidene chloride between mice and rats. Brit J Cancer 37:411–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liebler DC, Guengerich FP (1983) Olefin oxidation by cytochrome P-450: Evidence for group migration in catalytic intermediates formed with vinylidene chloride and trans-1 -phenyl-1 -butene. Biochemistry 22:5482–5489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liebler DC, Meredith MJ, Guengerich FP (1984) Reactive metabolites of vinylidene chloride: Characterization of covalent adducts formed with proteins and glutathione in microsomes and isolated hepatocytes. Cancer Res 45:186–193.Google Scholar
  22. Maltoni C, Lefemine G, Cotti G, Chieco P, Patella V (1985) Experimental research on vinylidene chloride carcinogenesis. In: Maltoni C, Mehlman MA (eds) Archives of research on industrial carcinogenesis. Vol III. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Princeton, NJ. pp 1–229.Google Scholar
  23. McKenna MJ, Watanabe PG, Gehring PJ (1977) Pharmacokinetics of vinylidene chloride in the rat. Environ Hlth Perspect 21:99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McKenna MJ, Zempel JA, Madrid EO, Gehring PJ (1978a) The pharmacokinetics of [14C] vinylidene chloride in rats following inhalation exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 45:599–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McKenna MJ, Zempel JA, Madrid EO, Braun WH, Gehring PJ (1978b) Metabolism and pharmacokinetic profile of vinylidene chloride in rats following oral administration. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 45:821–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murray FJ, Nitschke KD, Rampy LW, Schweiz BA (1979) Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of inhaled or ingested vinylidene chloride in rats and rabbits. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 49:189–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. NAS (1983) National Academy of Sciences. Drinking water and health, vol 5. National Academy Press., Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  28. NIOSH (1978) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1,1-Dichloroethylene. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH. p 563.Google Scholar
  29. NIOSH (1979) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for a recommended standard—occupational hazard to vinyl halides. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (USDHEW), Washington, DC. EPA-600/8–83–031F.Google Scholar
  30. Nitschke KD, Smith FA, Quast JF, Norris JM, Schwetz BA (1983) A three-generation rat reproductive toxicity study of vinylidene chloride in the drinking water. Fund Appl Toxicol 3:75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. NTP (1982) National Toxicology Program. Carcinogenesis bioassay of vinylidene chloride (CAS no. 75–35-4) in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage study). NTP publication no. NTP-80–2. NIH publication no. 82–1784. USDHHS (PHS) Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health (NIH).Google Scholar
  32. Ponomarkov V, Tomatis L (1980) Long-term testing of vinylidene chloride and chloro- prene for carcinogenicity in rats. Oncology 37:136–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prendergast JA, Jones RA, Jenkins LJ Jr, Siegel J (1967) Effects on experimental animals of long-term inhalation of trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloro- ethane, dichlorodifluoroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethylene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 10:270–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quast JF, Humiston CG, Wade CE, Ballard J, Beyer JE, Schwetz RW, Norris JM (1983) A chronic toxicity and oncongenicity study in rats and subchronic toxicity study in dogs on ingested vinylidene chloride. Fund Appl Toxicol 3:55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rampy LW, Quast LF, Humiston CG, Blamer MF, Schwetz BA (1977) Interim results of two-year toxicological studies in rats of vinylidene chloride incorporated in the drinking water or administered by repeated inhalation. Environ Hlth Perspect 21:33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reitz RH, Watanabe PG, McKenna MJ, Quast JF, Gehring PJ (1980) Effects of vinylidene chloride on DNA synthesis and DNA repair in the rat and mouse: a comparative study with dimethylnitrosamine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 52:357–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Reynolds ES, Moslen MT, Szabo S, Jaeger RJ, Murphy SD (1975) Hepatotoxicity of vinyl chloride and 1,1-dichloroethylene. Am J Pathol 81:219–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Short RD, Minor JL, Winston JM, Lee CC (1977) A dominant lethal study in male rats after repeated exposure to vinyl chloride or vinylidene chloride. J Toxicol Environ Hlth 3:965–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Simmon VF, Kauhanen K, Tardiff RG (1977) Mutagenic activity of chemicals identified in drinking water. Dev Toxicol Environ Sci 2:249–258.Google Scholar
  40. [1] USEPA documents can be obtained by writing to the appropriate office within the U.S. Environ­mental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20460. They may also be available by contacting the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (Telephone: 1–800-336–4700). (1979) Water related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants. Report no. EPA-440/4–79-029. USEPA Office of Water Planning and Standards, Washington, DC. December.Google Scholar
  41. USEPA* (1980a) Ambient water quality criteria for dichloroethylenes. Report no. EPA-440/5–80-041. USEPA Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Criteria and Standards Division. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  42. USEPA* (1983) Vinylidene chloride occurrence in drinking water, food, and air. USEPA Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  43. USEPA* (1984a) Draft criteria document for the dichloroethylenes. USEPA Criteria and Standards Division (CSD), Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. USEPA (1984b) National primary drinking water regulations; volatile synthetic organic chemicals;proposed rulemaking. Fed Regis 49(114):24330–24355. June 12.Google Scholar
  45. USEPA* (1984c) Method 501.1. Volatile halogenated organic compounds in water by purge and trap gas chromatography. USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (EMSL), Cincinnati, OH. June.Google Scholar
  46. USEPA* (1985a) Final RMCL, proposed MCLs for VOCs. November 13, 1985.Google Scholar
  47. USEPA* (1985b) Method 524.1. Volatile organic compounds in water by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (EMSL), Cincinnati, OH. June.Google Scholar
  48. USEPA* (1985c) Health assessment document for vinylidene chloride. August. Report no. EPA 660/8–83-03IF.Google Scholar
  49. USEPA (1986) Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed Regis 51(185):33992–34003.Google Scholar
  50. USEPA* (1987a) Dichloroethylene; Occurrence in food, water, and air. USEPA Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  51. USEPA (1987b) National primary drinking water regulations—synthetic organic chemicals; monitoring for unregulated contaminants; final rule. Fed Regis 52(130):25690–25717.Google Scholar
  52. USITC (1982) United States International Trade Commission. Synthetic organic chemicals, United States production. 1983 USITC Publication 1422. USITC, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  53. Van Duuren BL, Goldschmidt BM, Lowengart G, Smith AC, Melchionne S, Seldman I, Roth D (1979) Carcinogenicity of halogenated olefinic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 63:1433–1439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. WHO (1984) World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol 1. Recommendations. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  55. Windholz M, Budavari S, Blumetti RF, Otterbein ES, eds (1983) The Merck index-an encyclopedia of chemicals and drugs. 10th Ed. Merck & Co Inc., Rahway, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • George W. Ware
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Agriculture, University of ArizonaTusconUSA

Personalised recommendations