Bunyaviridae: The Bunyaviruses

  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Robert E. Shope


Diseases: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Rift Valley fever, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Nairobi sheep disease, Oropouche, LaCrosse encephalitis, Akabane, sandfly fever, and undifferentiated fevers.

Etiologic Agents: Hantaan, Rift Valley fever, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Nairobi sheep disease, Oropouche, LaCrosse, Akabane, sandfly Naples, sandfly Sicilian, and other viruses (virus distribution related to distribution of arthropod vector and mammalian reservoirs.

Source: Infected mosquitoes, ticks, or mammals, depending on virus.

Clinical Manifestations: Undifferentiated fevers, fever and rash, hemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, encephalitis, optic retinitis, teratogenesis.

Pathology: Dependent on etiologic agent, but rather typical of specific infection (i.e., encephalitis, fever, rash, etc.).

Laboratory Diagnosis: Virus isolation and serologic tests for antibody (IgM antibody capture ELISA, neutralization).

Epidemiology: Diseases occur when humans or animals are in contact with infected vertebrates or when fed on by infected arthropods in specific geographic areas.

Treatment: Symptomatic.

Prevention and Control: Prevention of contact (removal from area, insecticides, screening, rodent proofing) between susceptible human or animal and source of virus (infected arthropod or vertebrate), vaccination.


Hemorrhagic Fever Vertebrate Host Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome Rift Valley Fever Rift Valley Fever Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Robert E. Shope

There are no affiliations available

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