Togaviridae and Flaviviridae: The Alphavirases and Flaviviruses

  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Thomas P. Monath


Diseases: Yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Wes- selsbron, tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Kyasanur Forest disease, other tick- borne hemorrhagic fevers, Murray Valley encephalitis, Rocio encephalitis, equine encephalitides (eastern, western, Venezuelan), chikungunya, o’nyong-nyong, Ross River, Mayaro, Sindbis, Ockelbo.

Etiologic Agents: Yellow fever, dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, dengue-4, Central Euro-pean encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Murray Valley encephalitis, Wesselbron, Ilheus, Rocio, Russian spring-summer encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, louping ill, Kyasanur Forest disease, Powassan, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River, Mayaro, Sindbis, Ockelbo.

Source: Mosquitoes, ticks; Omsk hemorrhagic fever may be water-borne.

Clinical Manifestations: Fever, fever with rash, fever with rash and polyarthritis, fever with rash, myalgia, and arthralgia, hemorrhagic fever with shock, abortion, encephalitis.

Pathology: Disturbance of the integrity of microcirculation, with leakage of plasma and plasma proteins into extravascular spaces (hemorrhagic fevers); typical viral encephalitis.

Laboratory Diagnosis: Virus isolation, fourfold or greater increase or decrease in antibody in infected individuals, antigen detection or IgM antibody capture ELISA, neutralization, hemagglutination-inhibition, complement-fixation, indirect fluorescent antibody tests.

Epidemiology: Focally or widespread worldwide, dependent on distribution of virus, vec¬tors, and vertebrate hosts.

Treatment: Symptomatic, immune plasma. Prevention and Control: Prevention of bite by infected arthropod, insecticide spraying, vaccination


Japanese Encephalitis Virus Yellow Fever Japanese Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Thomas P. Monath

There are no affiliations available

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