Lyme Disease and Related Disorders
Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis, erythema migrans disease, Bannwarth’s syndrome) is a multisystem illness caused by a newly described spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (Burgdorfer et al., 1982; Johnson et al., 1984). Ixodes species of ticks are the primary vectors of this disease (Anderson et al., 1983; Bosler et al., 1983; Burgdorfer et al., 1982). Lyme disease was first identified in the United States in 1975, after a mysterious outbreak of arthritis among the residents of Lyme, Connecticut (Steere et al., 1977). The disease is also present in 13 countries from Europe to Australia. The first illness caused by this spirochete was described in Europe in 1909 (Afzelius, 1921). The disease is characterized by the development of an expanding annular red rash-like skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans (ECM), at the site of the tick bite. The ECM may be followed by cardiac, joint, and neurologic abnormalities (Steere et al., 1983). The arthritis and neurologic abnormalities may be progressive and chronic in some patients (Reik et al., 1986.
KeywordsFatigue Arthritis Europe Dementia Penicillin
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