Advertisement

Critical Review of Henry’s Law Constants for Pesticides

  • L. R. Suntio
  • W. Y. Shiu
  • D. Mackay
  • J. N. Seiber
  • D. Glotfelty
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 103)

Abstract

Pesticides play an important role in maintaining agricultural productivity, but they may also be causes of contamination of air, water, soil, and food, with possible adverse effects on human and animal health. The proper use of pesticide chemicals must be based on an understanding of the behavior of the chemicals as they interact with air, water, soil, and biota, react or degrade, and migrate. This behavior is strongly influenced by the chemicals’ physical-chemical properties of solubility in water, vapor pressure or volatility, and tendency to sorb to organic and mineral matter in the soil.

Keywords

Vapor Pressure Molar Volume Plant Growth Regulator Mole Fraction Solubility Fugacity Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addison JB (1981) Measurement of vapor pressures of fenitrothion and matacil. Chemosphere 10:355–364.Google Scholar
  2. Ali S (1978) Degradation and environmental fate of endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate in mouse, insect and laboratory model ecosystem. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Illinois. 101 pp. Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7820891 (Diss Abstr Int B 1978, 39(5): 2117).Google Scholar
  3. Ashton FM, Crafts AS (1973) Mode of Action of Herbicides. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Atkins DHF, Eggleton AEJ (1971) Studies of atmospheric washout and deposition of γ-BHC, dieldrin and p,p’-DDT using radio-labelled pesticides. Proc Symp Nucl Tech Environ Pollut, pp 521–533. Intl Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  5. Atlas E, Foster R, Giam CS (1981) Air-sea exchange of high molecular weight pollutants: laboratory studies. Environ Sci Technol 16:283–286.Google Scholar
  6. Balson EW (1947) Studies in vapour pressure measurement. Part III. An effusion manometer sensitive to 5 × 10−6 millimetres of mercury: vapour pressure of DDT and other slightly volatile substances. Trans Faraday Soc 43:54–60.Google Scholar
  7. Baur JR, Bovey RW (1974) Ultraviolet and volatility loss of herbicides. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2:275–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benchmark Pesticides (1975) Draft report of Preliminary Summaries of Literature Surveys of Benchmark Pesticides. George Washington University Medical Center. Draft dated October 30, 1975.Google Scholar
  9. Best R (1975) Stamford (American Cyanamid Co. Research Report) 4:11051–11019. Data provided by W.F. Spencer.Google Scholar
  10. Bidleman TF (1984) Estimation of vapor pressures for nonpolar organic compounds by capillary gas chromatography. Anal Chem 56:2490–2496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bidleman TF, Christensen E (1979) Atmospheric removal processes for high molecular weight organochlorines. J Geophys Res 84(C12): 857–862.Google Scholar
  12. Biggar JW, Riggs IR (1974) Apparent solubility of organochlorine insecticides in water at various temperature. Hilgardia 42:10:383–391.Google Scholar
  13. Bobra A, Shiu WY, Mackay D (1985) Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the acute toxicity of chlorobenzenes to Daphnia magna. Environ Toxicol Chem 4:297–305.Google Scholar
  14. Bowery TG (1964) Heptachlor. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. II. Zweig, G (ed) Academic Press, New York, p245.Google Scholar
  15. Bowman BT, Sans WW (1982) Adsorption, desorption, soil mobility, aqueous persistence and octanol-water partitioning coefficients of terbufos, terbufos sulfoxide and terbufos sulfone. J Environ Sci Health B17:447–462.Google Scholar
  16. Bowman BT, Sans WW (1983) Determination of octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Kow) of 61 organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides and their relationship to respective water solubility (S) values. J. Environ Sci Health B18:6:667–683.Google Scholar
  17. Bowman MC, Acree F, Jr., Corbett MK (1960) Solubility of carbon-14 DDT in water. J Agric Food Chem 8:5:406–408.Google Scholar
  18. Briggs GG (1969) Molecular structure of herbicides and their sorption by soils. Nature 223:1288.Google Scholar
  19. Briggs GG (1981) Theoretical and experimental relationships between soil adsorption, octanol-water partition coefficients, water solubilities, bioconcentration factors, and the Parachor. J Agric Food Chem 29:1050–1059.Google Scholar
  20. Briggs GG, Bromilow RM, Evans AA (1982) Relationship between lipophilicity and root uptake and translocation of non-ionised chemical by barly. Pestic Sci 13: 495–504.Google Scholar
  21. Bright NFH, Cuthill JC, Woodbury NH (1950) Vapor pressure of parathion and related compounds. J Sci Food Agric 1:344–348.Google Scholar
  22. Brooks GT (1974) Chlorinated Insecticides: Volume I: Technology and applications. CRC Press, Cleveland, OH.Google Scholar
  23. Brust HF (1966) A Summary of chemical and physical properties of Dursban. Down to Earth 22:3:21–22.Google Scholar
  24. Callahan MA, Slimak MW, Gabel NW, May IP, Fowler CF, Freed JR, Jennings P, Durfee RL, Whitmore FC, Maestri B, Mabey WR, Holt BR, Gould C (1979) Water-related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants, Vol. I, EPA Report No. 440/4–79-029a. Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA.Google Scholar
  25. Chiou C, Freed D, Schmedding D, Kohnert R (1977) Partition coefficient and bioaccumulation of selected organic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 11:5:475–478.Google Scholar
  26. Cook RF (1973) Carbofuran. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators, Vol. III. Academic Press, New York, pp 187–210.Google Scholar
  27. Demozay D, Marechal G (1972) Physical and chemical properties of lindane: monograph of an insecticide. E Ulmann, K Schiller, Freiburg im Breisgau pp 15–21.Google Scholar
  28. Dickenson W (1956) The vapour pressure of 1:1:p:p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloro-ethane (D.D.T.). Trans Faraday Soc 52:31–35.Google Scholar
  29. Dobbs AJ, Cull MR (1982) Volatilisation of chemicals-relative loss rates and the estimation of vapour pressures. Environ Pollut (Series B) 3:289–298.Google Scholar
  30. Edwards CA (1966) Insecticide residues in soils. Residue Reviews 13:83–132.Google Scholar
  31. Eichler W (Ed.) (1965) Handbuch der Insektizidkunde. Veb Verlag Volk Gesundheit, Berlin, pp 1–84.Google Scholar
  32. Elgar KE (1983) Pesticide residues in water—an appraisal In: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Pesticide Chemistry: Human welfare and the environment. Vol. 4. Miyamoto J, Kearney, PC (eds). Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, p 34.Google Scholar
  33. Farmer WJ, Yang MS, Letey J, Spencer WF (1980) Hexachlorobenzene: its vapor pressure and vapor phase diffusion in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:676–680.Google Scholar
  34. Felsot A, Dahm PA (1979) Sorption of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides by soil. J Agric Food Chem 27:557–563.Google Scholar
  35. Freed VH (1966) Chemistry of herbicides, In: Pesticides and Their Effects on Soils and Water. Breth SA (ed), Soil Science Society of America, Inc., pp 28–39.Google Scholar
  36. Freed VH, Chiou CT, Hague R (1977) Chemodynamics: Transport and behavior of chemicals in the environment—A problem in environmental health. Environ Health Perspect 20:55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Freed VH, Schmedding D, Kohnert R, Hague R (1979) Physical chemical properties of several organophosphates: Some implication in environmental and biological behavior. Pestic Biochem Physiol 10:203–211.Google Scholar
  38. Gaines TB (1969) Acute toxicity of pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 14:515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Glotfelty DE, Seiber JN, Liljedahl LA (1987) Pesticides in fog. Nature 325:602–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gossett JM (1987) Measurement of Henry’s law constants for C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 21:202–208.Google Scholar
  41. Grover R, Spencer WF, Farmer WJ, Shoup TD (1978) Triallate vapor pressure and volatilization from glass surfaces. Weed Sci 26:505–508.Google Scholar
  42. Gückel W, Synnatschke G, Rittig R (1973) A method for determining the volatility of active ingredients used in plant protection. Pestic Sci 4:137–147.Google Scholar
  43. Gückel W, Ritting FR, Synnatschke G (1974) A method for determining the volatility of active ingredients used in plant protection. II Application to formulated products. Pestic Sci 5:393.Google Scholar
  44. Günther FA, Westlake WE, Jaglan PS (1968) Reported solubilities of 738 pesticide chemicals in water. Residue Reviews 20:1–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamaker JW, Kerlinger HO (1969) Vapor pressure of pesticides. Adv Chem Ser 86:39–54.Google Scholar
  46. Hamilton DJ (1980) Gas chromatographic measurement of volatility of herbicide esters. J Chromatog 195:75–83.Google Scholar
  47. Hartley GS (1969) Evaporation of Pesticides. In: Pesticidal Formulations Research. Gould, R.F. (ed), Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, p 132.Google Scholar
  48. Hartley GS, Graham-Bryce IJ (1980) Physical Principles of Pesticide Behaviour, the Dynamics of Applied Pesticides in the Local Environment in Relation to Biological Response, Vol. 2, Academic Press, London, pp 892–925.Google Scholar
  49. Hassett JP, Millicic E (1985) Determination of equilibrium and rate constants for binding of a polychlorinated biphenyl congener by dissolved humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 19:638–643.Google Scholar
  50. Herbicide Handbook of the Weed Society of America (1967) W.F. Humphrey Press Inc., Geneva, NY, 1st Ed.Google Scholar
  51. Herbicide Handbook (1974) Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, IL, 3rd Ed.Google Scholar
  52. Jacob F, Neumann S (1983) Quantitative determination of mobility of xenobiotics of mobility and criteria of their phloem and xylem mobility. In: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Pesticide Chemistry: Human Welfare and the Environment. Vol. I. Miyamoto J, Kearney PC (eds), Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, p 362.Google Scholar
  53. Jaber HM, Smith JH, Cwirla AN (1982) Evaluation of Gas Saturation Methods to Measure Vapor pressure (EPA Contract No. 68-01-5117). SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson H (1978) Calculation of the estimated partition coefficient for isophorone. Chemist., Biorganic Chem Lab. SRI-International.Google Scholar
  55. Jury WA, Farmer WJ, Spencer WF (1984) Behavior assessment model for trace organics in soil. II. Chemical classification and parameter sensitivity. J Environ Qual 13:567–572.Google Scholar
  56. Kanazawa J (1981) Japan Pestic Info No 39:12–16.Google Scholar
  57. Kapoor IP, Metealf RL, Hirwe AS, Coats JR, Khaisa MS (1973) Structure activity correlations of biodegradability of DDT analogs. J Agric Food Chem 21:2: 310–315.Google Scholar
  58. Kavanaugh MC, Trussel RR (1980) Design of aeration towers to strip volatile contaminants from drinking water. J Am Water Works Assoc 72:684–692.Google Scholar
  59. Kenaga EE (1980a) Predicted bioconcentration factors and soil sorption coefficients of pesticides and other chemicals. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 4:26–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kenaga EE (1980b) Correlation of bioconcentration factors of chemicals in aquatic and terrestrial organisms with their physical and chemical properties. Environ Sci Technol 14:553–556.Google Scholar
  61. Kenaga EE, Goring CAI (1980) In: Aquatic Toxicology. Eaton JG, Parrish PR, Hendricks AC (eds), Am Soc for Testing and Materials, STP 707, pp 78–115.Google Scholar
  62. Khan UK (1980) Pesticides in the Soil Environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Holland.Google Scholar
  63. Kim YH, Woodrow JE, Seiber JN (1984) Evaluation of a gas chromatographic method for calculating vapor pressures with organophosphorus pesticides. J Chromatog 314:37–53.Google Scholar
  64. Kim Y-H (1985) Evaluation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Estimating Vapor Pressures with Organic Pollutants. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  65. Kuhn W, Massini P (1949) Temperatur-abhängigkeit des Dampfdrucks sowie der Verdampfungsgeschwindigkeit von Dichlordiphenyltrichloräthan. Helv Chim Acta 32:1530–42.Google Scholar
  66. Kurihara NMU, Fujita T, Nakajima M (1973) Studies on BHC isomers and related compounds V. Some physicochemical properties of BHC isomers, Pestic Biochem Physiol 2(4): 383–390.Google Scholar
  67. Leo A, Hansch C, Elkins D (1971) Partition coefficients and their uses. Chem Rev 71:525–616.Google Scholar
  68. Ligocki MP, Leuenberger C, Pankow JF (1985) Trace organic compounds in rain. II. Gas scavenging of neutral organic compounds. Atmos Environ 19:1609–1617.Google Scholar
  69. Lincoff AH, Gossett JM (1984) The determination of Henry’s law constant for volatile organics by equilibrium partitioning in closed systems. In: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces; Brusasert W, Jirka GH, (eds) Reidel: Dordrecht, Holland, pp 17–25.Google Scholar
  70. Liss PS, Slater PG (1974) Flux of gases across the air-sea interface. Nature 247:181–184.Google Scholar
  71. Loos MA (1975) Phenoxyalkanoic acids. In: Herbicides. Chemistry, degradation and mode of action. Kearney PC, Kaufmann DD (eds), Marcel Dekker, Vol. I, 2nd Ed p3.Google Scholar
  72. Lu P-Y, Metcalf R (1975) Environmental fate and biodegradability of benzene derivatives as studied in a model aquatic ecosystem. Environ Health Perspect 10:269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lyman WJ, Reehl WF, Rosenblatt DH (1982) Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Mabey W, Smith JH, Podoll RT, Johnson HL, Mill T, Chou TW, Gate J, Waight Partridge I, Jaber H, Vandenberg D. (1982) Aquatic Fate Process for Organic Priority Pollutants. EPA Report No. 440/4–81–014.Google Scholar
  75. MacDougall D (1964) Dylox. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York p 199.Google Scholar
  76. Mackay D, Leinonen PJ (1975) Rate of evaporation of low-solubility contaminants from water to atmosphere. Environ Sci Technol 7:1178–1180.Google Scholar
  77. Mackay D, Shiu WY, Sutherland RP (1979) Determination of air-water Henry’s law constants for hydrophobic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 13:333–337.Google Scholar
  78. Mackay D, Bobra A, Shiu WY, Yalkowsky SH (1980) Relationships between aqueous solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient. Chemosphere 9:701–711.Google Scholar
  79. Mackay D, Shiu WY (1981) A critical review of Henry’s law constants for chemicals of environmental interest. J Phys Chem Ref Data 10:1175–1199.Google Scholar
  80. Mackay D, Paterson S, Schroeder WH (1986) Model describing the rates of transfer processes of organic chemicals between atmosphere and water. Environ Sci Technol 20:810–816.Google Scholar
  81. Margot A, Stammbach K (1964) Diazinon. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulations, and Food Additives, Vol II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, pp 110.Google Scholar
  82. Marquardt RP (1964) Ronnel. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 428.Google Scholar
  83. Martens R (1972) Decomposition of endosulfan by soil microorganisms. Schrifter Ver Wasser-, Bodden-, Lufthg, Berlin-Dahlem 37:167–173.Google Scholar
  84. Marti E (1976) Ciba-Geigy Research Report. Basel, West Germany. Data provided by WF Spencer.Google Scholar
  85. Martin H (1972) Pesticide Manual, 3rd Ed., British Crop Protection Council, Worcester, England.Google Scholar
  86. May WE, Wasik SP, Freeman DH (1978a) Determination of aqueous solubility of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by a coupled column liquid chromatographic technique. Anal Chem 50:175–179.Google Scholar
  87. May WE, Wasik SP, Freeman DH (1978b) Determination of the solubility behavior of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. Anal Chem 50:997–1000.Google Scholar
  88. Melnikov NN (1971) Chemistry of Pesticides. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Menn JJ, Patchett GG, Batchelder GH (1964) In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 546.Google Scholar
  90. The Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals (1983). Windholz M (ed), Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 10th Ed.Google Scholar
  91. Metcalf R (1971) The chemistry and biology of pesticides. In: Pesticides in the Environment. White-Stevens J (ed), Part I, Vol 1, Marcel Dekker, New York, p 50.Google Scholar
  92. Metcalf RL (1972) DDT Substitutes. Crit Rev Environ Control 3(1):25–59.Google Scholar
  93. Metcalf RL, Kapoor IP, Lu PY, Schuth CK, Sherman P (1973) Model ecosystem studies of the environmental fate of six organochlorine pesticides, Environ Health Perspect 4:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Metcalfe CD, Mcleese DW, Zitko V (1980) Rate of volatilization of fenitrothion from fresh water. Chemosphere 9:151–155.Google Scholar
  95. Miller MM, Ghodbane S, Wasik SP, Tewari YB, Martire DE (1984) Aqueous solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients and entropies of melting of chlorinated benzenes and biphenuls. J Chem Engr Data 29:184–190.Google Scholar
  96. Miller MM, Wasik SP, Huang GL, Shiu WY, Mackay D (1985) Relationships between octanol-water partition coefficient and aqueous solubility. Environ Sci Technol 19:522–529.Google Scholar
  97. Miskus R (1964) DDT. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 97.Google Scholar
  98. Montgomery JM, Consulting Engineering, Inc. (1986) Private communication.Google Scholar
  99. Murphy TJ, Mullin MD, Meyer JA (1987) Equilibration of polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene with air and water. Environ Sci Technol 21:2:155–162.Google Scholar
  100. Neely WB, Branson DR, Blau GE (1974) Partition coefficient to measure bioconcentration potential of organic chemicals in fish. Environ Sci Technol 8:13: 1113–1115.Google Scholar
  101. O’Brien RD (1974) Nonenzymic effects of pesticides on membrances. In: Environmental dynamics of pesticides. Haque R, Freed VH (eds), Plenum Press, New York, pp 331–342.Google Scholar
  102. OECD (1981) OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (OECD), Paris 104.Google Scholar
  103. Paris DF, Lewis DL, Barnett JT (1977) Bioconcentration of toxaphene by microorganisms. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 17:5:564–572.Google Scholar
  104. Park KS, Bruce WN (1968) The determination of the water solubility of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. J Econ Entomol 61:3:770–774.Google Scholar
  105. Patchett GG, Batchelder GH, Menn JJ (1964) Eptam. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. IV. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 118.Google Scholar
  106. Patchett GG, Batchelder GH (1967a) Vernam. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. V. Zweig, G. (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 538.Google Scholar
  107. Patchett GG, Batchelder GH (1967b) Ordram. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. V. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 470.Google Scholar
  108. Patchett GG, Batchelder GH (1967c) Ro-Neet. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives. Vol. V. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 492.Google Scholar
  109. Philips FT (1971) Persistence of organochlorine insecticides on different substrates under different environmental conditions. I. The rates of loss of dieldrin and aldrin by volatilisation from glass surfaces. Pestic Sci 2:255–266.Google Scholar
  110. Phillips WEJ (1975) [Publ.] Endosulfan. Its effects on environmental quality. Nat Res Counc Can, Environ Secr, 14098, 100 pp.Google Scholar
  111. Plato C, Glasgow AR, Jr (1969) Differential scanning calorimetry as a general method for determining the purity and heat of fusion of high-purity organic chemicals. Application to 95 compounds. Anal Chem 41:330–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Plato C (1972) Differential scanning calorimetry as a general method for determining purity and heat of fusion of high-purity organic chemicals. Application to 64 Compounds. Anal Chem 44:1531–1534.Google Scholar
  113. Porter PE (1964) Dieldrin. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, pp 143–163.Google Scholar
  114. Prausnitz JM (1969) Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria. Prentic Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  115. Probst GW, Golab T, Wright WL (1975) Dinitroanilines. In: Herbicides, Chemistry Degradation and Mode of Action. Vol. 1. Kearney PC, Kaufman DD (eds), Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY, p 457.Google Scholar
  116. Quellette RP, King JA (1977) Chemical Week. Pesticides Register, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  117. Radding SB, Liu DH, Johnson HL, Mill T (1977) Review of the Environmental Fate of Selected Chemicals. USEPA Report No. EPA-560/5-77-003.Google Scholar
  118. Rao PSC, Davidson JM (1980) Estimation of pesticide retention and transformation parameters required in nonpoint source Pollution Models. In: Environmental Impact of Nonpoint Source Pollution. Overcash MR, Davidson JM (eds), Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  119. Raw GR (ed) (1970) CIPAC Handbook. Vol. I. Analysis of Technical and Formulated Pesticides. Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council.Google Scholar
  120. Reid RC, Prausnitz JM, Sherwood TK (1977) The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 3rd Ed McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Ripley BD, Braun HE (1983) Pesticide Residues. Retention time data for organo-chlorine, organophosphorus, and organonitrogen pesticides on SE-30 capillary column and application of capillary gas chromatography to pesticide residue analysis. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 66:5:1084–1095.Google Scholar
  122. Rothman AM (1980) Low vapor pressure determination by the radiotracer transpiration method. J Agric Food Chem 28:1225–1228.Google Scholar
  123. von Rümker Horay F. (1972) Information on Thirty-five Pesticide Chemicals. Pesticide Manual Part II. US Agency for International Development.Google Scholar
  124. Sanborn JR, Metealf WNB, Lu PY (1976) The fate of chlordane and toxaphene in a terrestrial-aquatic model ecosystem. Environ Entomol 5:3:533–538.Google Scholar
  125. Sears GW, Hopke ER (1949) Vapor pressures of naphthalene, anthracene and hexa-chlorobenzene in a low pressure region. J Am Chem Soc 71:1632–1634.Google Scholar
  126. Seiber JN, Woodrow JE, Sanders PF (1981) Estimation of ambient vapor pressures of pesticides from gass chromatographic retention data. Abstract, 182nd Am Chem Soc Meeting, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Shell Development Company (1973) Gardona Insecticide. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators. Vol. VII. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 298.Google Scholar
  128. Shiu WY, Mackay D (1986) A critical review of aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, Henry’s law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients of the poly-chlorinated biphenyls. J Phys Chem Data 15:911–929.Google Scholar
  129. Sittig M (1977) Pesticides Process Encyclopedia. Noyes Data, Park Ridge, NJ.Google Scholar
  130. Slade RE (1945) The γ-isomer of hexachlorocychlohexane (Gammexane). Chem Ind pp 314–319.Google Scholar
  131. Slater RM, Spedding DJ (1981) Transport of dieldrin between air and water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 10:25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith CW (ed) (1962) Acrolein. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  133. Smith JH, Mabey WR, Bahonos N, Holt BR, Lee SS, Chou TW, Bomberger DC, Mill T (1978) Environmental Pathways of Selected Chemicals in Freshwater Systems: Part II. Laboratory Studies. Interagency Energy-environment Research and Development Program Report. EPA-600/7–78–074. Environmental Research Laboratory Office of Research and Development. USEPA, Athens, Georgia 30605, p304.Google Scholar
  134. Spencer EY (1973) Guide to the Chemical used in Crop Protection, 6th Ed, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.Google Scholar
  135. Spencer EY (ed) (1982) Guide to the Chemicals used in Crop Protection. 7th Ed. Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  136. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1968) Vapor density of dieldrin. Environ Sci Technol 3:670–674.Google Scholar
  137. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1970) Vapor pressure and apparent vapor pressure of lindane. J Agric Food Chem 18:529–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1970) Desorption of lindane from soil as related to vapor density. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34:574–578.Google Scholar
  139. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1973) Pesticide volatilization. Residue Reviews 49:1–47.Google Scholar
  140. Spencer WF (1975) Movement of DDT and its derivatives in the atmosphere. Residue Reviews 59:91–117.Google Scholar
  141. Spencer WF (1976) Vapor pressure and vapor loss. In: A Literature Survey of Benchmark Pesticides. The George Washington University Medical Center Department of Medical and Public Affairs. Science Communication Division, Washington, DC, pp 72–165.Google Scholar
  142. Spencer WF, Shoup TD, Cliath MM, Farmer WJ, Haque R (1979) Vapor pressures and relative volatility of ethyl and methyl parathion. J Agric Food Chem, 27:273–278.Google Scholar
  143. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1983) Measurement of pesticide vapor pressures. Residue Reviews 85:57–71.Google Scholar
  144. Stansbury HA Jr, Miskus R (1964) In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulator, and Food Additives, Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, NY, p 438.Google Scholar
  145. Sundaram A, Leung JW (1986) A simple method to determine relative volatilites of aqueous formulation of pesticides. J Environ Sci Health B21:2:165–190.Google Scholar
  146. Sutherland GL, Miskus R (1964) Parathion. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Vol. II. Zweig G (ed), Academic Press, New York, p 322.Google Scholar
  147. Thibodeaux LJ (1979) Chemodynamics. John Wiley and Sons, p 46.Google Scholar
  148. Triggan JW, Dutt GR, Riggs RL (1967) Predicting and measuring the solubility of p, p-DDT in water. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 2:90.Google Scholar
  149. Veith GD, Austin NM, Morris RT (1979) A rapid method for estimating log P for organic chemicals. Water Res 13:43–47.Google Scholar
  150. Veith GD, DeFoe DL, Bergstedt BV (1979) Measuring and estimating the bio-concentration factor of chemicals in fish. J Fish Res Board Can 26:1040–1048.Google Scholar
  151. Verschueren K (1977) Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals, Van Nostrands Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Verschueren K (1983) Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals, 2nd Ed, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  153. Warner H, Cohen JM, Ireland JC (1980) Determination of Henry’s Law Constants of Selected Priority Pollutants. MERL, ORD, US EPA, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  154. Weast RC (1984) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 64th ed., CRC Press, FL.Google Scholar
  155. Weil LG, Quentin KL (1974) Solubility in water of insecticide chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in view of water pollution. Z Wasser Abwasser Forsch 7:6:169–175.Google Scholar
  156. Westcott JW, Bidleman TF (1981) Determination of polychlorinated biphenyl vapor pressures by capillary gas chromatography. J Chromatog 210:331–336.Google Scholar
  157. Westcott JW, Simon CG, Bidleman TF (1981) Determination of polychlorinated biphenyl vapor pressures by a semimicro gas saturation method. Environ Sci Technol 15:1375–1378.Google Scholar
  158. Williams EF (1951). Properties of o,o-diethyl o,p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate and o,o-diethyl o,p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Ind Engr Chem 43:950–954.Google Scholar
  159. Williams GH (1986) Field Measurement of Pesticide Washout in Rain Near Belts ville, Maryland. MS Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742.Google Scholar
  160. Worthing CR (ed) (1983) The Pesticide Manual (A World Compendium) 7th Ed., The British Crop Protection Council, Cryodon.Google Scholar
  161. Yalkowsky SH (1979) Estimation of entropies of fusion of organic compounds. Ind Engr Chem Fund 18:108–111.Google Scholar
  162. Yin C, Hassett JP (1986) Gas partitioning approach for laboratory and field studies of mirex fugacity in water. Environ Sci Technol 20:1213–1217.Google Scholar
  163. Yost J (1975) Stamford (American Cynamid Co. Research Report) 2:6243–46. Data provided by WF Spencer.Google Scholar
  164. Zepp RG, Wolfe NL, Azarraga RH, Coz RH, Pape CW (1977) Photochemical transformation of the DDT and methoxychlor degradation products, DDE and DMDE, by sunlight. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 6:305–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zimmerli B, Marek B (1974) Modellversuche zur Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Pestiziden via Gasphase. Mitt Gebiete Lebensm Hyg 65:55–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. R. Suntio
    • 1
  • W. Y. Shiu
    • 1
  • D. Mackay
    • 1
  • J. N. Seiber
    • 2
  • D. Glotfelty
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied ChemistryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ToxicologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Soil Nitrogen and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Environmental Quality InstituteUS Department of AgricultureBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations