An Idiotype Approach for a Vaccine Against Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

  • Yasmin Thanavala


The current interest in the molecular mimicry of viral, bacterial, parasite, and tumor antigens using anti-idiotypic antibodies is based on the concept set forth by Niels Jerne (1) over a decade ago as the network theory of the immune system. He envisaged the immune system as a complex network of cells held together via complementary recognition mediated by structures (idiotopes) encoded by the variable-region genes of the antibody molecule. The network would thus consist of idiotype-anti-idiotype (Id-anti-Id) interactions between lymphocytes, with all lymphocytes being in a state of dynamic equilibrium as a result of these interactions. External antigen, by perturbing this equilibrium, would provoke an immune response.


Surface Antigen Rabies Virus Chronic Carrier Internal Image Antiidiotypic Antibody 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Jerne, N.K. 1974. Towards a network theory of the immune system. Ann. Immunol. (Inst. Pasteur) 125C: 373.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roitt, I.M., A. Cooke, D.K. Male, F.C. Hay, G. Guarnotta, P.M. Lydyard, L. deCarvalho, Y.M. Thanavala, and I. Ivanyi. 1981. Idiotypic networks and their possible exploitation for manipulation of the immune response. Lancet i: 1041.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nisonoff, A., and E. Lamoyi. 1981. Implications of the presence of an internal image of the antigen in anti-idiotypic antibodies: possible application to vaccine production. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 21: 397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maupas, P., P. Coursaget, A. Goudeau, F. Barin, J.P. Chiron, and B. Raynaud. 1981. p. 3. In P. Maupas and P. Goesky (eds.), Hepatitis B vaccine. Elsevier/ North Holland Biomedical Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beasley, R.P. and L.Y. Hwang. 1984. The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma, pp. 209-224. In G.N. Vyas (ed.), Viral hepatitis and liver disease. Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maupas, P., and J.L. Melnick. 1981. Hepatitis B virus and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Prog. Med. Virol. 27: 1.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Almeida, J.D. 1972. Individual morphological variations seen in Australia antigen positive sera. Am. J. Dis. Child. 123: 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robinson, W.S. 1977. The genome of hepatitis B virus. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 31: 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levene, C., and B.S. Blumberg. 1969. Additional specificities of Australia antigen and the possible identification of hepatitis carriers. Nature (London) 221: 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    LeBouvier, G.L. 1971. The heterogeneity of Australia antigen. J. Infect. Dis. 123: 671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Courouce-Pauty, A.M., A. Plancon, and J.P. Soulier. 1983. Distribution of HBsAg subtypes in the world. Vox Sang. 44: 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gerety, R.J., E. Tabor, R.H. Purcell, and F.J. Tyeryar. 1979. Summary of an International Workshop on hepatitis B vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 140: 642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Szmuness, W., C.E. Stevens, E.J. Harley, E.A. Zang, W.R. Oleszko, D.C. William, R. Sedovsky, J.M. Morrison, and A. Kellner. 1980. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high risk population in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hilleman, M.R., E.B. Buynak, W.J. McAleer, and A.A. McLean. 1981. p. 120. In S. Krugmati and S. Sherlock (eds.), Proceedings of the European Symposium on Hepatitis B, Merck, Sharpe & Dohme International.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crosnier, J., P. Jungers, A.M. Courouce, A. Laplanche, E. Benhamou, F. Degos, B. Lacour, P. Prunet, Y. Cerisier, and P. Guesry. 1981. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine in french haemodialysis units: I Medical Staff. Lancet 1: 455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Laplanche, A., A.M. Courouce, E. Benhamou, P. Jungers, and J. Crosnier. 1982. Responses to hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet i: 222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Szmuness, W., C.E. Stevens, E.J. Harley, E.A. Zang, H.J. Alter, P.E. Taylor, A. DeVera, G.T.S. Chen, A. Kellner, and the Dialysis Vaccine Trial Study Group. 1982. Hepatitis B vaccine in medical staff of hemodialysis units. Efficacy and subtype cross-protection. N. Engl. J. Med. 307: 1481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maupas, P., J.’P. Chiron, F. Barin, P. Coursaget, A. Goudeau, J. Perrin, F. Denis, and I. Diap Mar. 1981. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in prevention of early HBsAg carrier state in children. Controlled trial in an endemic area (Senegal). Lancet 1: 289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maupas, P., L.Y. Huang, R.P. Beasley, S.H. Chen, and T.Y. Lee. 1983. Immunogenicity of hepatitis B virus vaccine in healthy Chinese neonates. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prozesky, O.W., C.E. Stevens, W. Szmuness, H. Rolka, E.J. Harley, M.C. Kew, J.E. Scholtz, and A.D. Mitchell. 1983. Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in newborns. J. Infect. Dis. 7 (Suppl. 1): 53.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Szmuness, W., C.E. Stevens, E.A. Zang, E.J. Harley and A. Kellner. 1981. A controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of the hepatitis vaccine (hepta vax B): a final report. Hepatology 1: 377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walker, M.E., W. Szmuness, C. Stevens, and P. Rubinstein. 1981. Proc. Am. Assoc. Blood Banks, No. 4.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maupas, P., A. Goudeau, F. DuBois, P. Coursaget, and F. Barin. 1981. p. 117. In P. Maupas and P. Guesry (eds.), Hepatitis B vaccine. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    McAuLiffe, V.J., R.H. Purcell, and J.L. Gerin. 1980. Type B hepatitis: a review of current prospects for a safe and effective vaccine. Rev. Infect. Dis. 2: 470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stevens, C.E., W. Szmuness, A.J. Goodman, S.A. Wesley, and M. Fonno. 1980. Hepatitis B vaccine: Immune responses in haemodialysis patients. Lancet ii: 1211.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Skelly, J., C.R. Howard, and A.J. Zukerman. 1981. Hepatitis B polypeptide vaccine preparation in micelle form. Nature (London) 290: 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valenzuela, P., A. Medina, W.J. Rutter, G. Ammerer, and B.D. Hall. 1982. Synthesis and assembly of hepatitis B virus surface antigen particles in yeast. Nature (London) 298: 347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Michel, M.L., P. Pontisso, E. Sobczak, Y. Malpiece, R. E. Streeck, and P. Tiollais. 1984. Synthesis in animal cells of hepatitis B surface antigen particles carrying a receptor for polymerized human serum albumin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 7708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smith, G.L., M. Mackett, and B. Moss. 1983. Chemically synthesized peptides predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B virus genome elicit antibodies reactive with native envelope protein of some particles. Nature (London) 302: 490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ionescu-Matiu, I., R.C. Kennedy, J.T. Sparrow, A.R. Culwell, Y. Sanchez, J.L. Melnick, and G.R. Dreesman. 1983. Epitopes associated with a synthetic hepatitis B surface antigen peptide. J. Immunol. 130: 1947.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lerner, R.A., N. Green, H. Alexander, F.T. Lui, J.G. Sutcliffe, and T.M. Shinnick. 1981. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 3403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhatnager, P.K., E. Papas, H.E. Blum, D.R. Milich, D. Nitecki, M.J. Karels, and G.N. Vyas. 1982. Immune response to synthesis peptide analogues of hepatitis B surface antigen specific for the a determinant. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 4400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sacks, D.L., and A. Sher. 1983. Evidence that anti-idiotype induced immunity to experimental African trypanosomiasis is genetically restricted and requires recognition of containing site-related idiotopes. J. Immunol. 131: 1511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ertl, H.C.J., E. Homans, S. Tournas, and R.W. Finberg. 1984. Sendai virus- specific T cell clones. V. Induction of virus-specific response by antiidiotypic antibodies directed against a T helper cell clone. J. Exp. Med. 159: 1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sharpe, A.H., G.N. Gaulton, K.K. McDade, B.N. Fields, and M.I. Greene. 1984. Syngeneic monoclonal antiidiotype can induce cellular immunity to reovirus. J. Exp. Med. 160: 1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kennedy, R.C., and G.R. Dreesman. 1984. Enhancement of the immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen. J. Exp. Med. 159: 655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stein, K.E., and T. Soderstrom. 1984. Neonatal administration of idiotype or anti-idiotype primes to protection against E. coli K13 infection in mice. J. E.p. Med. 160: 1001.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    McNamara, M.K., R.E. Ward, and H. Kohler. 1984. Monoclonal idiotype vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Science 226: 1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thanavala, Y., A. Bond, R. Tedder, F.C. Hay, and I.M. Roitt. 1985. Monoclonal internal image’ anti-idiotypic antibodies of hepatitis B surface antigen. Immunology 55: 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thanavala, Y., A. Bond, F.C. Hay, and I.M. Roitt. 1985. Immunofluorescent technique for the detection of monoclonal internal image anti-idiotypic anti¬bodies of hepatitis B surface antigen. J. Immunol. Methods 83: 227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thanavala, Y., S.E. Brown, C.R. Howard, I.M. Roitt, and M.W. Steward. 1986. A surrogate hepatitis B virus antigenic epitope represented by a synthetic peptide and an internal image antiidiotype antibody. J. Exp. Med. 164: 227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Uytdehaag, F.G.C.M., and A.D.M.E. Osterhaus. 1985. Induction of neutralizing antibody in mice against poliovirus type II with monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody. J. Immunol. 134: 1225.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Francotte, M., and J. Urbain. 1984. Induction of anti-tobacco mosaic virus antibodies in mice by rabbit antiidiotypic antibodies. J. Exp. Med. 160: 1485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reagan, K.J., W.H. Wunner, T.J. Wiktor, and H. Kroprowski. 1983. Anti¬idiotypic antibodies induce neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus glycoprotein. J. Virol. 48: 660.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasmin Thanavala

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations