Tissue Interactions of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide Lasers

  • Tsunenori Arai
  • Makoto Kikuchi


The principle and the practical experimental results for the tissue interaction of CO and CO2 lasers are described in this chapter. The high-intensity irradiation of these lasers indicates strong cutting to the living tissue. Despite the fact CO2 lasers have been used as the unique light source for the laser scalpel, one problem remaining unsolved is the lack of available flexible optical fibers that can deliver CO2 laser radiation of 10.6 µm in wavelength. The CO laser radiation of wavelength 5 µm indicates similar tissue interaction to the CO2 laser radiation. Moreover, the flexible glass fibers made from infrared glasses can be available for CO laser delivery. We have recommended using CO lasers for cutting instead of CO2 lasers.


Tissue Interaction Average Light Intensity Oscillation Wavelength Extinction Length Laser Scalpel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Joffe SN, Daikuzono N, Osborn J, et al: Contact probes for the Nd:YAG laser. In Katzir A (ed): Optical Fibers in Medicine and Biology. SPIE, Bellingham, 1985, pp 42–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Downing HD, Williams D: Optical properties of water in the infrared. J Geophys Res 80: 1656–1661, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trokel SL, Srinivasan R, Braren B: Excimer laser surgery of the cornea. Am J Opthalmol 96: 710–715, 1983.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gordy E, Drabkin DL: Determination of the oxygen saturation of blood by a simplified technique, applicable to standard equipment. J Biol Chem 227: 285–299, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhaumik ML, Lacina WB, Mann MM: Characteristics of CO laser. IEEE J Quant Electron QE8: 150–160, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheo PK: CO, lasers. In DeMaria AJ (ed): Lasers. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1971, pp 111–267.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Browne PG, Smith ALS: Efficient long life sealed CO lasers at room temperature. J Phys E 8: 870, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Witteman WJ: High-output and long lifetimes of sealed-off CO, lasers. Appl Phys Lett 11: 337–338, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ikedo M, Ishiwatari H, Watari M, et al: Infrared optical fiber for energy transmission. Rev Laser Eng (Jpn) 11: 834–841, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Halldorsson T, Langerhole J: Thermodynamic analysis of laser irradiation of biological tissue. Appl Opt 17: 3948–3952, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arai T, Kikuchi M: A study for development of CO laser scalpel (1) Investigation of the effect of CO laser light on living tissue. J Jpn Soc Laser Med 3: 223–230, 1982.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arai T, Kikuchi M, Sakuragi S, et al: CO laser power delivery by As,S, IR glass fiber with Teflon cladding. In Katzir A (ed): Optical Fibers in Medicine and Biology. SPIE, Bellingham, 1985, pp 24–31.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karbe E, Beck R, English W, Experimental surgery with neodymium, holmium, CO and CO, lasers. In Kaplan I (ed): Laser Surgery. Jerusalem Academic Press, Jerusalem, 1976. pp 174–177.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsunenori Arai
  • Makoto Kikuchi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations