Advertisement

Nervous System Regeneration and Repair Following Injury

  • Oswald Steward

Abstract

Injuries and disease that result in neuronal loss or degeneration represent a substantial health problem. Spinal cord injuries leading to paraplegia or quadraplegia affect about 100,000 people, head injuries about 3 million, stroke about 2 million, and degenerative diseases of various sorts (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease) affect millions more. Thus, problems that lead to the degeneration of CNS neurons are quite common.

Keywords

Caudate Nucleus Superior Colliculus Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Postsynaptic Cell Normal Target 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplemental Reading

Orthograde and Retrograde Degeneration

  1. Cowan WM (1970) Anterograde and retrograde transneuronal degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous system, in Ebbesson SOE, Nauta WJH (eds): Contemporary Research Methods in Neuroanatomy. New York, Springer-Verlag, pp 217–251Google Scholar
  2. Caceres A, Steward O (1983) Dendritic reorganization in the denervated dentate gyrus of the rat following entorhinal cortical lesions: a Golgi and electron microscopic analysis. J Comp Neurol 214:387–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Powell TPS, Erulkar SD (1962) Transneuronal cell degeneration in the auditory relay nuclei of the cat. J Anat 91:249–268Google Scholar
  4. Purves D (1975) Functional and structural changes in mammalian neurones following interruption of their axons. J Physiol 252:429–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Tower SS (1939) The reaction of muscle to denervation. Physiol Rev 19:1–48Google Scholar

Denervation Supersensitivity

  1. Cannon WB Denervation Supersensitivity. London, Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Axelsson J, Thesleff S (1959) A study of supersensitivity in denervated mammalian skeletal muscle. J Physiol 147:178–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Jones R, Vrbova G (1974) Two factors responsible for the development of denervation hypersensitivity. J Physiol 236:517–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kuffler SW, Dennis MJ, Harris, AJ (1971) The development of chemosensitivity in extrasynaptic areas of the neuronal surface after denervation of parasympathetic ganglion cells in the heart of the frog. Proc R Soc Lond 177:555–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lømø T, Rosenthal J (1972) Control of ACh sensitivity by muscle activity in the rat. J Physiol 221:493–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Miledi R (1960) The acetylcholine sensitivity of frog muscle fibers after complete or partial denervation. J Physiol 151:1–23PubMedGoogle Scholar

Bouton Shedding

  1. Matthews MR, Nelson VH (1975) Detachment of structurally intact nerve endings from chromatolytic neurons of rat superior ganglion during the depression of synaptic transmission induced by postganglionic axotomy. J Physiol 245:91–135PubMedGoogle Scholar

Role of Schwann Cells in Axon Regeneration

  1. Aguayo A, David S, Richardson P et al. (1982a) Axonal elongation in peripheral and central nervous system transplants. Adv Cell Neurobiol 3:215–234Google Scholar
  2. Aguayo AJ, Richardson PM, Benfey M (1982b) Transplantation of neurons and sheath cells-a tool for the study of regeneration, in Nicholls JG (ed): Repair and Regeneration of the Nervous System, Life Sciences Research Report 24. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, pp 91–106Google Scholar
  3. Benfey M, Aguayo AJ (1982) Extensive elongation of axons from rat brain into peripheral grafts. Nature 296:150–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Astrocytes and Phagocytosis of Degeneration Debris

  1. Gall C, Rose G, Lynch G (1979) Proliferative and migratory activity of glial cells in the partially deafferented hippocampus. J Comp Neurol 183:539–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sprouting

  1. Edds MV (1953) Collateral nerve regeneration. Q Rev Biol 28:260–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cotman CW, Nadler JV (1981) Reactive synaptogenesis in the hippocampus, in Cotman CW (ed): Neuronal Plasticity. New York, Raven Press, pp 227–271Google Scholar
  3. Cotman CW, Nieto-Sampedro M, Harris EW (1981) Synapse replacement in the nervous system of adult vertebrates. Physiol Rev 61:684–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Raisman G (1969) Neuronal plasticity in the septal nuclei of the adult rat. Brain Res 14:25–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Steward O, Vinsant SV (1983) The process of reinnervation in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: a quantitative electron microscopic analysis of terminal proliferation and reactive synaptogenesis. J Comp Neurol 214:370–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Trophic Factors in CNS Regeneration and Repair

  1. Nieto-Sampedro M, Manthorpe M, Barbin G et al. (1983) Injury-induced neuron-otrophic activity in adult rat brain: correlation with survival of delayed implants in the wound cavity. J Neurosci 3:2219–2229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Skene JHP, Willard M (1981) Axonally transported proteins associated with axon growth in rabbit central and peripheral nervous systems. J Cell Biol 89:96–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Skene JHP, Willard M (1981) Characteristics of growth-associated polypeptides in regenerating toad retinal ganglion cell axons. J Neurosci 1:419–426PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oswald Steward
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of Virginia, School of MedicineCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations