Temporary and Permanent Pacemakers

  • Amar S. Kapoor


Hyman,1 in 1930, demonstrated that direct cardiac stimulation for emergency resuscitation was possible. He transmitted electric stimuli from an external pulse generator via a needle electrode through the chest wall to the right atrium. Clinically, this method was not successful. In 1952, Zoll2 successfully resuscitated two patients from ventricular standstill with external stimuli provided by electrodes attached to a large electric pulse generator.


Ventricular Pace Permanent Pacemaker Cardiac Pace Pace Threshold Temporary Pace 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

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  • Amar S. Kapoor

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