Biomonitoring: Closing the Loop in the Environmental Sciences

  • Edwin E. Herricks
  • David J. Schaeffer
  • James A. Perry
Part of the Springer Advanced Text in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)

Abstract

For the purposes of this chapter we define biomonitoring as the analysis of the performance of living systems structured to provide essential information for decision making. Although some form of biomonitoring has been used for hundreds, if not thousands of years (Herricks and Schaeffer 1984), a cohesive approach to the design and use of biomonitoring programs is a recent development. This chapter discusses biomonitoring programs, emphasizing program designs that coordinate data collection and facilitate information retrieval. We highlight the role of biomonitoring in the context of environmental management and regulation. We suggest that both control theory and decision science can be used to refine biomonitoring programs to optimize the use of data in the environmental sciences, management, and regulation.

Keywords

Toxicity Assure Arena Dura Acoustics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen TFH, O’Neill RV, Hoekstra TW (1984) Interlevel relations in ecological research and management: Some working principles from hierarchy theory. U. S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-110Google Scholar
  2. Athans M, Falb PL (1966) Optimal Control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 879 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Bell DJ (1973) Recent Mathematical Developments in Control. New York: Academic Press, 446 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Cairns J Jr, Dickson KL, Maki AW (1978) Estimating the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life. ASTM STP 657, 278 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Cairns J Jr, van der Schalie WH (1980) Biological monitoring part I—early warning systems. Water Research 14: 1179–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cairns J Jr (1984) Freshwater Biological Monitoring: Keynote Address. In: Pascoe D, Edwards RW (eds) Freshwater Biological Monitoring. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 1–15Google Scholar
  7. CMA—Chemical Manufacturers Association (1984) Biomonitoring: A useful tool for industry, government. Chemecology, Washington, DC, 6 pp.Google Scholar
  8. General Accounting Office (1981) Better monitoring techniques are needed to assess the quality of rivers and streams. Volume I. CED-81–30, United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, 121 pp.Google Scholar
  9. General Accounting Office (1986) Key unanswered questions about the quality of rivers and streams. GAO/PEMD-86-6, United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, 163 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Hellawell JM (1978) Biological Surveillance of Rivers. Water Research Centre, Stevenage, United Kingdom, 332 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Herricks EE, Cairns J Jr (1979) Monitoring and mitigation of aquatic hazards. In: Fredrick ER (ed) Control of Specific (Toxic) Pollutants. Air Poll Cont Assoc Special Technical Publication, Washington, DC, pp. 220–231Google Scholar
  12. Herricks EE, Cairns J Jr (1982) Biological monitoring Part III—Receiving system methodology based on community structure. Water Research 16: 141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herricks EE, Schaeffer DJ (1984) Compliance biomonitoring—standard development and regulation enforcement using biomonitoring data. In: Pascoe D, Edwards RW (eds) Freshwater Biological Monitoring. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 153–166Google Scholar
  14. Herricks EE (1984) Aspects of monitoring in river basin management. Water Sei Tech 16: 259–274Google Scholar
  15. Herricks EE, Schaeffer DJ (1985) Can we optimize biomonitoring? Environ Manage 9: 487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herricks EE, Schaeffer DJ (1987) Selection of Test Systems to Evaluate the Effects of Contaminants on Ecological Systems. Civil Engineering Studies, Environmental Engineering Series No. 71, UILU-ENG 87–2010. University of Illinois, Urbana, pp. 51Google Scholar
  17. Hill J, Durham SL (1978) Input, signals, and controls in ecosystems. In: Proceedings Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, pp. 391–397Google Scholar
  18. Holling CS (1978) Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. New York: John Wiley, 377 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Kooijman SALM, Metz JAJ (1983) On the dynamics of chemically stressed populations: The deduction of population consequences from effects on individuals. TNO NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaufmann GM, Thomas H (1977) Modern Decision Analysis. New York: Penguin Books, 507 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Landau YD (1979) Adaptive Control. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc, 406 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Levins RA (1981) Ecosystem properties relevant to ecotoxicology. In: Working Papers Prepared as Background for Testing For Effects of Chemicals on Ecosystems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, pp. 119–132Google Scholar
  23. Melsa JL, Schultz DG (1969) Linear Control Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 621 pp.Google Scholar
  24. National Academy of Sciences (1981) Testing for the Effects on Ecosystems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 103 pp.Google Scholar
  25. O’Neill RV, DeAngelis DL, Waide JB, Allen TFH (1986) A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Monographs in Population Biology #23, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 253 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Osborne LL (1982) EPA’s recommended biomonitoring program: Assessment of potential for detecting low-level impacts on stream designated use and recommendations. Draft Report to A A AS/EPA Environmental Science and Engineering Fellowship Program, 65 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Patten BC (1983) On the quantitative dominance of indirect effects in ecosystems. In: Lauenroth WK, Skogerbee GV, Flug M (eds) Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modeling. New York: Elsevier, 992 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Perry JA, Schaeffer DJ, Kerster HW, Herricks, EE (1985) The environmental audit. II. Application to stream network design. Environ Manage 9: 199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perry JA, Schaeffer DJ, Herricks EE(1986) Innovative designs for water quality monitoring: Are we asking the questions before the data are collected. ASTM STP-940, pp. 28–39Google Scholar
  30. Phelps EB (1944) Stream Sanitation. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 276 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Schaeffer DJ, Kerster HW, Perry JA, Cox DK (1985) The environmental audit I: Concepts. Environ Manage 9: 191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schaeffer DJ, Janardan KG (1987) Designing batteries of short-term tests with largest inter-tier correlation. Ecotox Environ Safety 13: 316–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thoman RV (1972) Systems Analysis and Water Quality Management. Environmental Sciences Services Division, Environmental Research Applications, Inc, New York, 286 pp.Google Scholar
  34. US Environmental Protection Agency (1979) Interim NPDES Compliance Biomonitoring Inspection Manual. MCD-62. Office of Water Enforcement, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. US Environmental Protection Agency (1982) Water Quality Standards Handbook, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. US Environmental Protection Agency (1985) Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control. Office of Water, Washington, DC, 74 pp. + appendices.Google Scholar
  37. US Environmental Protection Agency (1986) Solicitation DL 86-003, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth, Duluth, MNGoogle Scholar
  38. Yablokov AV (1974) Variability of Mammals. NTIS: Springfield, VA, TT 71-58007Google Scholar
  39. Zison SW, Mills WB, Deimer D, Chen CW (1979) Rates, Constants, and Kinetics Formulations in Surface Water Quality Modeling. EPA-600/3-78-105, ORD- ERL: Athens, GA, 317 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin E. Herricks
    • 1
  • David J. Schaeffer
    • 2
  • James A. Perry
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary BiosciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations