Advertisement

Molecular Immunology of Viral Antigens in Hepatitis B Vaccination

  • Soumitra Roy
  • Girish N. Vyas
Conference paper
Part of the Progress in Vaccinology book series (VACCINOLOGY, volume 2)

Abstract

Jaundice has been historically noted in association with both sporadic and epidemic disease, but it was not until 1839 that it was recognized to be a result of hepatocellular necrosis. The series of experimental inoculations into humans with infectious sera and subsequent transmission in animal models (marmosets and chimpanzees) established the existence of two distinct hepatotropic viruses. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) produce clinically indistinguishable acute hepatocellular necrosis. Viral hepatitides negative for the serologic markers of HAV or HBV infection have been termed non-A non-B (NANB). Among the heterogeneous etiologies, a proportion of such NANB disease may be ascribed to antigenically distinct agents that share nuclei acid homology with HBV (7). Because of the lack of a reliable laboratory test, the NANB virus continues to be enigmatic and a major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis (4,25). The epidemic NANB hepatitis prevalent in India and Russia is due to a distinct etiologic agent. We assess here the current concepts and information about biology (genes and antigens) of the HBV and current vaccines, and the future prospects in worldwide control of HBV infection.

Keywords

Molecular Immunology Dane Particle Chronic Carrier State Ground Squirrel Hepatitis Virus Hepadna Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Beasley RP, Trepo C, Stevens CE, Szmuness W: The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Epidemiol 1977; 105: 94–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Chien CS: Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Lancet 1981; 2: 1129–1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatnagar PK, Papas E, Blum HE, et al: A synthetic analogue of hepatitis B surface antigen sequence 139–147 produces immune response specific for the common a determinant. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 4400–4404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blum HE, Vyas GN: Non-A, non-B: a contemporary assessment. Haematologia (Budap) 1982; 15: 153–173.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blum HE, Haase AT, Harris JD, et al: Asymmetric replication of hepatitis B virus DNA in human liver: demonstration of cytoplasmic minus-strand DNA by Southern blot analyses and in situ hybridization. Hepatology 1983; 3: 840 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dreesman GR, Sanchez Y, Ionescu-Matiu I, et al: Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen after a single inoculation of uncoupled synthetic HBsAg peptides. Nature 1982; 295: 158–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Figus A, Blum HE, Vyas GN, et al: Hepatitis B virus nucleotide sequences in patients with non-A, non-B or type B chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1984; 4: 364–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fowler MJF, Monjardino J, Tsiquaye KN, et al: The mechanism of replication of hepatitis B virus: evidence of asymmetric repliation of the two DNA strands. J Med Virol 1984; 13: 83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Galibert F, Mandart E, Fitoussi F, et al: Nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus genome (subtype ayw) cloned in E. coli. Nature 1979; 281: 646–650.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Itoh Y, Takai E, Ohnuma H, et al: A synthetic peptide vaccine involving the pre-S2 region of hepatitis B virus: protective efficacy in chimpanzees. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 9174–9178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kennedy RC, Eichberg JW, Lanford RE, Dreesman GR: Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in chimpanzees. Science 1986; 232: 220–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J: Viral hepatitis type B (MS-2 strain): studies on active immunization. JAMA 1971; 217: 41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lerner RS, Green N, Alexander H, et al: Chemically synthesized peptides predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B virus genome elicit antibodies reactive with the native envelope protein of Dane particles. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1981; 78: 3403–3407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mackay P, Lees J, Murray K: The conversion of hepatitis B core antigen synthesized in E. coli into e antigen. J Med Virol 1981; 8: 237–243.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mason WS, Aldrich C, Summers J, Taylor JH: Asymmetric replication of duck hepatitis B virus DNA: free minus-strand DNA. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 3997–4001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maupas P, Guesry P: Hepatitis B Vaccine. Amsterdam, North Holland-Elsevier, 1981.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Melnick JL, Dreesman GR, Hollinger FB: Hepatitis B vaccine: expectations and realities for the prevention of infection and of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Infect Dis 1982; 12: 1–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Milich DR, Thornton B, Neurath RA, et al: Enhanced immunogenicity of the pre-S region of hepatitis B surface antigen. Science 1985; 228: 1195–1199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Milich MA, McLachlan F, Chisari S, Thornton G: Immune response to the pre-S(l)-specific T cell response can bypass nonresponsiveness to the pre-S(2) and S regions of HBsAg. J Immunol 1986; 137: 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neurath AR, Kent SBH, Strick N: Specificity of antibodies elicited by a synthetic peptide having a sequence in common with a fragment of a virus protein, the hepatitis B surface antigen. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 7871–7875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pasek M, Goto T, Gilbert W, et al: Hepatitis B virus genes and their expression in E. coli. Nature 1979; 282: 575–579.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peterson DL, Chien DY, Vyas GN, et al: Characterization of polypeptides of HBsAg for the proposed “U.C. Vaccine” for hepatitis B, in Vyas GN, Cohen SN, Schmid R (eds): Viral Hepatitis Philadelphia, Franklin Institute Press, 1978, pp 542–625.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prince AM, Ikram H, Hopp TP: Hepatitis B virus vaccine: identification of HBsAg/a and HBsAg/d but not HBsAg/y subtype antigenic determinants on a synthetic immunogenic peptide. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 579 - 582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Purcell RH, Gerin JL: Hepatitis B subunit vaccine: a preliminary report of safety and efficacy tests in chimpanzees. Am J Med Sci 1975; 270: 395–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Robinson WS: The enigma of non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Infect Dis 1982; 145: 387–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robinson WS, Marion P, Fettelson M, Siddiqui A: The hepadna virus group: hepatitis B and related viruses, in Szmuness W, Alter HJ, Maynard JE (eds): Viral Hepatitis. Philadelphia, Franklin Institute Press, 1982, pp 57–68.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Siddiqui A, Sattler F, Robinson WS: Restriction endonuclease cleavage map and location of unique features of the DNA of hepatitis B virus, subtype adw2. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1979; 76: 4664–4668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith GL, Mackett M, Moss B: Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B surface antigen. Nature 1983; 302: 490–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stevens CE, Beasley RP, Lin GC, et al: Perinatal hepatitis B virus infection: use of hepatitis B immune globulin, in Szmuness W, Alter HJ, Maynard JE (eds): Viral Hepatitis. Philadelphia, Franklin Institute Press, 1982, pp 527–535.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Tong MJ, et al: Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. JAMA 1987; 257: 2612–2616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Summers J, Mason W: Replication of the genome of a hepatitis B-like virus by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Cell 1982; 29: 403–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Szmuness W, Alter HJ, Maynard JE (eds): Viral Hepatitis. Philadelphia, Franklin Institute Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tiollais P, Charnay P, Vyas GN: Biology of hepatitis B virus. Science 1981; 213: 406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Valenzuela P, Gray P, Quiroga M, et al: Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the major protein of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Nature 1979; 280: 815–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Valenzuela P, Quiroga M, Zaldivar J, et al: Necleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus DNA, in Fields B, Jaenisch R, Fox CF (eds): Animal Virus Genetics. New York, Academic Press, 1980, pp 57–69.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Varmus HE: Form and function of retroviral proviruses. Science 1982, 216: 812–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vyas GN, Williams EW, Klaus GB, Bond HE: Hepatitis associated Australia antigen-protein, peptides and amino acid composition of purified antigen with its use in determining sensitivity of the hemagglutination test. J Immunol 1972; 108: 1114–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vyas GN, Cohen SN, Schmid R (eds): Viral Hepatitis. Philadelphia, Franklin Institute Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vyas GN: Molecular immunology of HBsAg, in Maupas P, Guesry P (eds): Hepatitis B Vaccine. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1981, pp 227–237.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vyas GN, Bhatnagar PK, Blum HE, et al: Appraisal and prospects of a dimeric synthetic peptide coupled with tetanus toxoid for a bifunctional vaccine against hepatitis B virus infection. Dev Biol Stand 1983; 54: 93 - 102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH: Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1984.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vyas GN: A brief overview of the new vaccines against hepatitis B virus infection: immunogenic gene products and peptide analogues of antigenic epitopes. Dev Biol Stand 1986; 63: 141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wands JR, Bruno RR, Carlson RI, et al: Monoclonal IgM radioimmunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen high binding activity in serum that is unreactive with conventional antibodies. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 1277–1281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weiser B, Ganem D, Seeger C, Varmus HE: Closed circular viral DNA and asymmetrical heterogeneous forms in liver from animals infected with ground squirrel hepatitis virus. J Virol 1983; 48: 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soumitra Roy
  • Girish N. Vyas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations