Immunodiagnosis of Leprosy

  • K. D. Moudgil
  • R. Mukherjee
  • Becky M. Itty
  • G. P. Talwar
Conference paper
Part of the Progress in Vaccinology book series (VACCINOLOGY, volume 2)


Leprosy is a major global health problem in tropical countries. A conservative estimate indicates that there are about 10 million to 12 million persons suffering from leprosy in the world. India has an estimated 4 million leprosy patients, with an overall prevalence of about 5 per 1000, although in some areas it is as high as 40 per 1000 (21). The total number of leprosy patients in India has registered a continuous increase since 1941 (8). Moreover, the disease has spread to areas formerly free of the disease. The Indian population living in high prevalence areas at considerable risk is about 400 million.


Leprosy Patient Lepromatous Leprosy Mycobacterium Leprae Major Global Health Problem Tuberculoid Leprosy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abe M, Izumi S, Saito T, et al: Early serodiagnosis of leprosy by indirect immunofluorescence. Lepr India 1976; 48: 272–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abe M, Minagawa F, Yoshino Y, et al: Fluorescent leprosy antibody absorption (FLA-ABS) test for detecting subclinical infection with Mycobacterium leprae. Int J Lepr 1980; 48: 109–119.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bharadwaj VP, Ramu G, Desikan KV: Fluorescent leprosy antibody absorption (FLA-ABS) test for early serodiagnosis of leprosy. Lepr India 1981; 53: 518–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brett SJ, Draper P, Payne SN, et al: Serological activity of a characteristic phenolic glycolipid from Mycobacterium leprae in sera from patients with leprosy and tuberculosis. Clin Exp Immunol 1983; 52: 271–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cho SN, Yanagihara DL, Hunter SW, et al: Serological specificity of phenolic glycolipid-I from Mycobacterium leprae and use in serodiagnosis of leprosy. Infect Immun 1983; 41: 1077–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cho SN, Fujiwara T, Hunter SW, et al: Use of an artificial antigen containing the 3,6-di-O-methyl-B-D-glucopyranosyl epitope for the serodiagnosis of leprosy. J Infect Dis 1984; 150: 311–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cho SN, Hunter SW, Gelber RH, et al: Quantitation of the phenolic glycolipid of Mycobacterium leprae and relevance to glycolipid antigenemia in leprosy. J Infect Dis 1986; 153: 560–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christian M:vThe epidemiological situation of leprosy in India. Lepr Rev 1981;52(suppl l):35–42.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clark-Curtiss JE, Jacob WR, Doucherty MA, et al: Molecular analysis of DNA and construction of genomic libraries of Mycobacterium leprae. J Bacteriol 1985; 161: 1093–1102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Douglas JT, Naka SO, Lee JW: Development of an ELISA for detection of antibody in leprosy. Int J Lepr 1984; 52: 19–25.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fujiwara T, Hunter SW, Cho SN, et al: Chemical synthesis and serology of the disaccharides and trisaccharides of phenolic glycolipid antigen from the leprosy bacillus and preparation of a disaccharide protein conjugate for leprosy. Infect Immun 1984; 43: 245–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gonzalez-Abreu E, Gonzalez A: Seroreactivity against the Mycobacterium leprae phenolic glycolipid I in mycobacteria infected or stimulated groups of individuals. Lepr Rev 1987; 58: 149–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harboe M, Closs O, Bjune G, et al: Mycobacterium leprae specific antibodies detected by radio-immunoassay. Scand J Immunol 1978; 7: 111–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khandekar P, Munshi A, Sinha S, et al: Construction of genomic libraries of mycobacterial origin: identification of recombinants encoding mycobacterial proteins. Int J Lepr 1986; 54: 416–422.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klaster PR, De Wit Madeleine YL, Kolk AHJ: An ELISA-inhibition test using monoclonal antibody for the serology of leprosy. Clin Exp Immunol 1985; 62: 468–473.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kumar S, Moudgil KD, Band AH, et al: A dot enzyme immunoassay for detection of IgM antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I in sera from leprosy patients. Indian J Lepr 1986; 58: 185–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller RA, Dissanayake S, Buchanan TM: Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using arabinomannan from Mycobacterium smegmatis: a potentially useful screening test for the diagnosis of incubating leprosy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1983; 32: 555–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moudgil KD, Gupta SK, Srivastava LM, Mishra R, Talwar GP: Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay based on sonicate supernatant antigens of Mycobacterium W for immunodiagnosis of leprosy. Indian J Lepr (In Press).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oleen P, Harboe M, Warndorff T, et al: Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae and anti-M. leprae antibodies in the urine of leprosy patients. Lepr Rev 1983; 54: 203–216.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oleen P, Harboe M, Warndorff Van Diepen T: Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae in urine during treatment of patients with lepromatous leprosy. Lepr Rev 1986; 57: 329–340.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park JE, Park K: Leprosy, in Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 9th ed. India, B. Bhanot, 1983, pp 269–280.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ralhan R, Band AH, Roy A, et al: An enzyme immunoassay titrating IgM antibody against phenolic glycolipid for diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. Indian J Med Res 1985; 82: 110–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ridley DS, Jopling WH: Classification of leprosy according to immunity: a five group system. Int J Lepr 1966; 34: 255–273.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saxena VK, Singh US, Singh AK: Bacteriological study of a rapidly growing strain of Mycobacterium. Lepr India 1978; 50: 588–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sinha S, Sengupta U, Ramu G, et al: Serological survey of leprosy and control subjects by a monoclonal antibody based immunoassay. Int J Lepr 1985; 53: 33–38.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Talwar GP: Towards development of a vaccine against leprosy: introduction. Lepr India 1978; 50: 488–491.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vithayasai V, Songsiri S, Vithayasai P, et al: Serological study of leprosy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Serological Tests for Detecting Subclinical Infection in Leprosy. Tokyo, Sasak- awa Memorial Health Foundation, 1983, pp 79–84.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Young DB, Buchanan TM: A serological test for leprosy with a glycolipid specific for Mycobacterium leprae. Science 1983; 221: 1057–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Young DB, Fohn MJ, Khanolkar SR, et al: A spot test for detection of antibodies to phenolic glycolipid I. Lepr Rev 1985; 56: 193–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Young DB, Harnisch JP, Knight J, et al: Detection of phenolic glycolipid I in sera from patients with lepromatous leprosy. J Infect Dis 1985; 152: 1078–1081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Young RA, Mehra V, Sweetser D, et al: Genes for the major protein antigens of leprosy parasite Mycobacterium leprae. Nature 1985; 316: 450–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. D. Moudgil
  • R. Mukherjee
  • Becky M. Itty
  • G. P. Talwar

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations