An information system, whether biological or man made, acquires, processes, transmits, and uses information. It is designed to detect the raw physical signal and it employs a representation that is matched to its use. Signal processing is involved at each stage. In this chapter we make a transition from an emphasis on biology to theory and computation. We consider examples of information acquisition in photoreceptors and of its transmission in neural nets. We inquire how structure and function are matched to each other and what this implies for information processing in the nervous system. Other aspects of information processing and computation are presented in the following chapters.
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