Effects of Acidic Deposition on the Chemical Form and Bioavailability of Soil Aluminum and Manganese

  • Jeffrey D. Wolt


Acidic deposition is hypothesized to cause changes in soil chemistry and to damage terrestrial ecosystems primarily through effects on soil acidification (Bloom and Grigal 1985, Environmental Resources Ltd. 1983, McFee et al. 1977, Norton 1979, Ruess 1983, Ulrich et al. 1980). The potential effects of acidic deposition on soils are perceived to be greater for forest ecosystems than for more intensively managed agricultural eco-systems, principally because of the limited nutrient status and strong aluminum-buffering of many forest soils (Comptroller General of the United States 1984, David and Driscoll 1984, Voigt 1980).


Forest Soil Soil Solution Acidic Deposition Honey Locust Nutrient Solution Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, F. 1971. Ionic concentrations and activities in soil solution. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35:420–426.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, F. 1984. Crop response to lime in the southern United States. In: Soil Acidity and Liming, 2d Ed., F. Adams (ed.), pp. 211–265. Agronomy Monogr. 12, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, F. and P.J. Hathcock. 1984. Aluminum toxicity and calcium deficiency in acid soil subhorizons of two Coastal Plains soil series. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 1305–1309.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, F. and Z.F. Lund. 1966. Effect of chemical activity of soil solution aluminum on cotton root penetration of acid subsoils. Soil Sci 101: 193–198.Google Scholar
  5. Adams, F. and Z. Rawajfih. 1977. Basaluminite and alunite: A possible cause of sulfate retention by acid soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41: 686–692.Google Scholar
  6. Adams, F. and J.I. Wear. 1957. Manganese toxicity and soil acidity in relation to crinkle leaf of cotton. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 21: 305–308.Google Scholar
  7. Alva, A.K., D.G. Edwards, C.J. Asher, and F.P.C. Blarney. 1986. Effects of phosphorus/aluminum molar ratio and calcium concentration on plant response to aluminum toxicity. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 133–137.Google Scholar
  8. Ares, J. 1986. Identification of aluminum species in acid forest soil solutions on the basis of A1:F reaction kinetics: 1. Reaction paths in pure solutions. Soil Sci 141: 399–407.Google Scholar
  9. Ares, J. and W. Ziechman. 1988. Interactions of organic matter and aluminum ions in acid forest solutions: Metal complexation, flocculation, and precipitation. Soil Sci 145: 437–447.Google Scholar
  10. Bache, B.W. and G.S. Sharp. 1976. Soluble polymeric hydroxy-alummum ions in acid soils. J Soil Sci 27: 167–174.Google Scholar
  11. Barnhisel, R. and P.M. Bertsch. 1982. Aluminum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2d Ed., A.L. Page etal. (eds.), pp. 275–300. Agronomy Monograph 9, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  12. Barnes, R.B. 1975. The determination of specific forms of aluminum in natural water. Chem Geol 15: 177–191.Google Scholar
  13. Bartlett, R.J., D.S. Ross, and F.R. Magdoff. 1987. Simple kinetic fractionation of reactive aluminum in soil “solutions”. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 1479–1482.Google Scholar
  14. Batchelor, B., J.B. McEwen, and R. Perry. 1986. Kinetics of aluminum hydrolysis: Measurement and characterization of reaction products. Environ Sci Technol 20: 891–894.Google Scholar
  15. Beck, K.C., R.H. Reuter, and E.M. Perdue. 1974. Organic and inorganic geochemistry of some Coastal Plain rivers of the southeastern United States. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38: 341–364.Google Scholar
  16. Behr, B. and H. Wendt. 1962. Schnelle Ionenreaktionen in Lösugen. I. Die Bildung des aluminiumsulfatokomplexes. Z Elektrochem 66: 223–228.Google Scholar
  17. Bersillon, J.L., P.H. Hsu, and F. Fiessinger. 1980. Characterization of hydroxy- aluminum solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 630–634.Google Scholar
  18. Bertsch, P.M. 1987. Conditions for All3 polymer formation in partially neutralized aluminum solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 825–828.Google Scholar
  19. Bertsch, P.M. and R.I. Barnhisel. 1985. Speciation of hydroxy-Al solutions by chemical and A1 NMR method. Agron Abstr 77: 145.Google Scholar
  20. Bertsch, P.M., W.J. Layton, and R.L Barnhisel. 1986b. Speciation of hydroxy-aluminum solutions by wet chemical and aluminum -27 NMR methods. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 1449 - 1454.Google Scholar
  21. Bertsch, P.M., G.W. Thomas, and R.I. Barnhisel. 1986a. Characterization of hydroxy-Al solutions by 27A1 NMR spectroscopy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 825–830.Google Scholar
  22. Blanchette, R.A. 1984. Manganese accumulation in wood decayed by white rot fungi. Phytopathology 74: 725–730.Google Scholar
  23. Bloom, P.R. 1983. The kinetics of gibbsite dissolution in nitric acid. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 164–168.Google Scholar
  24. Bloom, P.R. and D.F. Grigal. 1985. Modeling soil response to acidic deposition in nonsulfate adsorbing soils. J Environ Qual 14: 489–495.Google Scholar
  25. Bloom, P.R. and M.B. McBride. 1979. Metal ion binding and exchange with hydrogen ions in acid-washed peat. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 687–692.Google Scholar
  26. Bloom, P.R., M.B. McBride, and R.M. Weaver. 1979a. Aluminum organic matter in acid soils: buffering and solution aluminum activity. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 488–493.Google Scholar
  27. Bloom, P.R., M.B. McBride, and R.M. Weaver. 1979b. Aluminum organic matter in acid soils: Salt-extractable aluminum. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 813–815.Google Scholar
  28. Bloom, P.R., R.M. Weaver, and M.B. McBride. 1978. The spectrophotometric and fluorometric determination of aluminum with 8-hydroxyquinoline and butyl acetate extraction. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 713–716.Google Scholar
  29. Bohn, H.L. 1968. Emf of inert electrodes in soil suspension. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 32: 211–215.Google Scholar
  30. Bohn, H.L. 1969. The EMF of platinum electrodes in dilute solutions and its relation to pH. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 33: 639–640.Google Scholar
  31. Bohn, H.L. 1970. Comparisons of measured and theoretical Mn+2 concentrations in soil suspensions. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34: 195–197.Google Scholar
  32. Bohn, H.L., B.L. McNeal, and G.A. O’Connor. 1979. Soil Chemistry. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. Bowen, N.J.M. 1966. Trace Elements in Biochemistry. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Brenes, E. and R.W. Pearson. 1973. Root responses of three Gramineae species to soil acidity in an Oxisol and Ultisol. Soil Sci 116: 295–302.Google Scholar
  35. Brogan, J.C. 1964. The effect ofhumic acid on aluminum toxicity. In: Proceedings of 8th International Congress on Soil Science, pp. 227–233, Bucharest, Romania.Google Scholar
  36. Budd, W.W., A.H. Johnson, J.B. Huss, and R.S. Turner. 1981. Aluminum in precipitation, streams, and shallow groundwater in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Water Resour Res 17: 1179–1183.Google Scholar
  37. Burrows, W.D. 1977. Aquatic aluminum: Chemistry, toxicology, and environmental prevalence. CRC Crit Rev Environ Control 7: 167–216.Google Scholar
  38. Cameron, R.C., G.S.P. Ritchie, and A.D. Robson. 1986. Relative toxicities of inorganic aluminum complexes to barley. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 1231–1236.Google Scholar
  39. Childs, C.R., R.L. Profitt, and R. Lee. 1983. Movement of aluminum as an in-organic complex in some podzolized soils, New Zealand. Geoderma 29: 139–155.Google Scholar
  40. Christophersen, N. and H.M. Seip. 1982. A model for stream water chemistry at Birkens, Norway. Water Resour Res 18: 977–996.Google Scholar
  41. Collins, J.F. and S.W. Buol. 1970. Effects of fluctuations in the Eh-pH environment on iron and/or manganese equilibria. Soil Sci 110: 111–117.Google Scholar
  42. Comptroller General of the United States. 1984. Report to Congress: An Analysis of Issues Concerning Acid Rain. GAO/RCED-85-13. Washington, DC.: U.S. General Accounting Office.Google Scholar
  43. Cosby, C.J., G.M. Hornberger, J.N. Galloway, and R.F. Wright. 1985a. Modeling the effects of acid deposition: Assessment of a lumped parameter model of soil water and steam water chemistry. Water Resour Res 21: 51–63.Google Scholar
  44. Cosby, B.J., G.M. Hornberger, N.J. Galloway, and R.F. Wright. 1985b. Time scales of catchment acidification. Environ Sci Technol 19: 1144–1149.Google Scholar
  45. Cowling, E.B. and R.A. Linthurst. 1981. The acid precipitation phenomenon and its ecological consequences. Bioscience 31: 649–654.Google Scholar
  46. Cronan, C.S. 1980. Solution chemistry of a New Hampshire subalpine ecosystem: A biogeochemical analysis. Oikos 34: 272–281.Google Scholar
  47. Cronan, C.S. and C.L. Schofield. 1979. Aluminum leaching response to acid precipitation effects on high-elevation watersheds in the Northeast. Science 204: 304–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cronan, C.S., W.J. Walker, and P.R. Bloom. 1986. Predicting aqueous aluminum concentrations in natural waters. Nature 324: 140–143.Google Scholar
  49. Cronan, C.S., J.M. Kelly, C.I. Schofield, and R.A. Goldstein. 1987. Aluminum geochemistry and tree toxicity in forests exposed to acidic deposition. In: Acid Rain: Scientific and Technical Advances, R. Perry etal. (eds.) pp. 649–656. London: Selper Ltd.Google Scholar
  50. Dahlgren, R.A., C.T. Driscoll, and D.C. McAvoy. 1989. Aluminum precipitation and dissolution rates in Spodosol Bs horizons in the Northeastern USA. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 1045–1052.Google Scholar
  51. David, M.B. and C.T. Driscoll. 1984. Aluminum speciation and equilibria in soil solutions of a Haplorthod in the Adirondack Mountains ( New York, U.S.A.). Geoderma 33: 297–318.Google Scholar
  52. Di Pascale, G. and A. Violante. 1986. Influence of phosphate ions on the extraction of aluminum by 8-hydroxyquinoline from OH-A1 suspensions. Can J Soil Sci 66: 573–579.Google Scholar
  53. Driscoll, C.T. 1984. A procedure for the fractionation of aqueous aluminum in dilute acidic waters. Int J Environ Anal Chem 16: 267–283.Google Scholar
  54. Driscoll, C.T. and R.M. Newton. 1985. Chemical characteristics of Adirondack lakes. Environ Sci Teclmol 19: 1018–1024.Google Scholar
  55. Driscoll, C.T., R.D. Fuller, and D.M. Simone. 1988. Longitudinal variation in trace metal concentrations in a northern forested ecosystem. J Environ Qual 17: 101–107.Google Scholar
  56. Driscoll, C.T., Jr., J.P. Baker, J.J. Bisogni, Jr., and C.L. Schofield. 1980. Effect of aluminum speciation on fish in dilute acidified waters. Nature 284: 161–164.Google Scholar
  57. Duchaufour, P. and L.Z. Rousseau. 1960. Les phénomènes d’intoxication des plantules de résineux par le manganèse dans les humus forestiers. Rev For France 11: 835–847.Google Scholar
  58. Environmental Resources Limited. 1983. Acid Rain: A Review of the Phenomenon in the EEC and Europe. New York: Unipub.Google Scholar
  59. Eriksson, E. 1981. Aluminum in groundwater possible solution equilibria. Nord Hydrol 12: 43–50.Google Scholar
  60. Evans, A., Jr. 1986. Effects of dissolved organic carbon and sulfate on aluminum mobilization in forest soil columns. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 1576–1578.Google Scholar
  61. Evans, A., Jr. and L. W. Zelazny. 1986. Determination of inorganic mononuclear aluminum by selected chelation using crown ethers. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 910–913.Google Scholar
  62. Evans, A., Jr. and L.W. Zelazny. 1987. Effects of sulfate additions on the status of exchangeable aluminum in a Cecil soil. Soil Sci 143: 410–417.Google Scholar
  63. Farmer, V.C., J.D. Russell, and M.L. Berrow. 1980. Imogolite and proto-imogolite allophane in spodic horizons: Evidence for a mobile aluminum silicate complex in podzol formation. J Soil Sci 31: 673–684.Google Scholar
  64. Fernandez, I.J. and R.A. Struchtemeyer. 1984. Correlations between element concentrations in spruce foliage and forest soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 15: 1243–1255.Google Scholar
  65. Firestone, M.K., K. Killham, and J.G. McColl. 1983, Fungal toxicity of mobilized soil aluminum and manganese. Applied Environ Microbiol 48: 556–560.Google Scholar
  66. Foy, C.D. 1974. Effects of aluminum on plant growth. In: The Plant Root and Its Environment, E.W. Carson (ed.), pp. 601–642. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
  67. Foy, C.D. 1976. General principles involved in screening plants for aluminum and manganese tolerance. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Plant Adaptation to Mineral Stress in Problem Soils, pp. 255-267. Beltsville, Maryland, 22–23 November 1976. Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station, Ithaca, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Foy, C.D. 1983. The physiology of plant adaptation to mineral stress. Iowa State J Res 57: 355–391.Google Scholar
  69. Foy, C.D. 1984. Physiological effects of hydrogen, aluminum, and manganese toxicities in acid soil. In: Soil Acidity and Liming, 2d Ed., F. Adams (ed.), pp. 57–97. Agronomy Monograph 12, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society Agronomy.Google Scholar
  70. Freeman, R.A. and W.H. Everhart. 1971. Toxicity of aluminum hydroxide complexes in neutral and basic media to rainbow trout. Trans Am Fish Soc 100: 644–658.Google Scholar
  71. Frink, C.R. and M. Peech. 1962. Determination of aluminum in soil extracts. Soil Sci 93: 317–324.Google Scholar
  72. Frink, C.R. and G.K. Voigt. 1977. Potential effects of acid precipitation on soils in the humid temperate zone. Water Air Soil Pollut 7: 371–388.Google Scholar
  73. Frohlinger, J.O. and R. Kane. 1975. Precipitation: Its acidic nature. Science 189: 455–457.Google Scholar
  74. Galloway, J.N., G.E. Likens, and E. Edgarton. 1976. Acid precipitation in the northeastern U.S.-pH and acidity. Science 194: 722–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Galloway, J.N., G.E. Likens, and M.E. Hawley. 1984. Acid precipitation: Natural versus anthropogenic components. Science 226: 829–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gambrell, R.P. and W.H. Patrick, Jr. 1982. Manganese. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2d Ed., A.L. Page etal. (eds.), pp. 313–322. Agronomy Monograph 9, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  77. Geering, H.R., J.F. Hodgson, and C. Sdano. 1969. Micronutrient cation complexes in soil solution. IV. The chemical state of manganese in soil solution. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 33: 81–85.Google Scholar
  78. Goh, T.B. and P.M. Huang, 1984. Formation of hydroxy-Al-montmorillonite complexes as influenced by citric acid. Can J Soil Sci 64: 411–421.Google Scholar
  79. Goh, T.B. and P.M. Haung. 1985. Changes in the thermal stability and acidic characteristics of hydroxy-Al-montmorillonite complexes formed in the presence of citric acid. Can J Soil Sci 65: 519–522.Google Scholar
  80. Goldberg, S.P. and K.A. Smith. 1984. Soil manganese: E values, distribution of manganese-54 among soil fractions, and effects of drying. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 559–564.Google Scholar
  81. Hargrove, W.L. and G.W. Thomas. 1982. Titration properties of Al-organic matter. Soil Sci 134: 216–225.Google Scholar
  82. Hay, G.W., J.H. James, and G.W. vanLoon. 1985. Solubilization effects of simulated acid rain on the organic matter of forest soil: preliminary results. Soil Sci 139: 422–430.Google Scholar
  83. Hem, J.D. 1972. Chemical factors that influence the availability of iron and manganese in aqueous systems. Geol Soc Am Bull 83: 443–450.Google Scholar
  84. Hepper, C.M. 1979. Germination and growth of Glomus caledonius spores: The effects of inhibitors and nutrients. Soil Biol Biochem 11: 269–277.Google Scholar
  85. Hern, J.A., G.K. Rutherford, and G.W. vanLoon. 1985. Chemical and pedogenetic effects of simulated acid precipitation on two eastern Canadian forest soils. I. Nonmetals. Can J For Res 15: 839–847.Google Scholar
  86. Hodges, S.C. 1987. Aluminum speciation: A comparison of five methods. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 57–64.Google Scholar
  87. Hooper, R.P. and C.A. Shoemaker. 1985. Aluminum mobilization in an acidic headwater stream: Temporal variation and mineral dissolution disequilibria. Science 229: 463–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hsu, P.H. 1979. Effect of phosphate and silicate on the crystallization of gibbsite from OH-A1 solutions. Soil Sci 127: 219–226.Google Scholar
  89. Hue, N.V., G.R. Craddock, and F. Adams. 1985. Effect of organic acids on aluminum toxicity in subsoils. Agron, Abstr 77: 148.Google Scholar
  90. Hue, N. V., G. R. Craddock, and F. Adams. 1986. Effect of organic acids on aluminum toxicity in subsoils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 28–24.Google Scholar
  91. Hutchinson, T. C., L. Bozic, and G. Munoz-Vega. 1986. Responses of five species of conifer seedlings to aluminum stress. Water Air Soil Pollut 31: 283–294.Google Scholar
  92. Hutterman, A. and B. Ulrich. 1984. Solid phase-solution-root interactions in soils subjected to acid deposition. Philos Trans R Soc London 305: 353–368.Google Scholar
  93. Ingestad, T. 1964. Growth and boron and manganese status of birch seedlings grown in nutrient solution. In: Plant Analysis and Fertilizer Problems IV, C. Bould etal. (eds.), pp. 169–173. East Lansing, Michigan: American Society of Horticulture Science.Google Scholar
  94. Jackson, M.L. 1963. Aluminum bonding in soils: A unifying principle in soil science. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 27: 1–10.Google Scholar
  95. James, B.R., C.J. Clark, and S.J. Rhia. 1983. An 8-hydroxyquinoIine method for labile and total aluminum in soil extracts. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 893–897.Google Scholar
  96. James, B.R. and S.J. Rhia. 1984. Soluble aluminum in acidified organic horizons of forest soils. Can J Soil Sci 64: 637–646.Google Scholar
  97. James, B.R. and S.J. Rhia. 1989. Aluminum leaching by mineral acids in forest soils: I. Nitric-sulfuric acid differences. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 259–264.Google Scholar
  98. Jardine, R M. and L. W. Zelazny. 1986. Mononuclear and polynuclear aluminum speciation through differential kinetic reactions with ferron. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 895–900.Google Scholar
  99. Jardine, R M., L. W. Zelazny, and A. Evans, Jr. 1986. Solution aluminum anomalies from various filtering materials. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 891–894.Google Scholar
  100. Jarvis, S.C. 1984. The forms of occurrence of manganese in some acidic soils. J Soil Sci 35: 421–429.Google Scholar
  101. Johnson, D.W. and D.E. Todd. 1984. Effects of acid irrigation on carbon dioxide evolution, extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and aluminum in a deciduous forest soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 664–666.Google Scholar
  102. Johnson, N.M., C.T. Driscoll, J.S. Eaton, G.E. Likens, and W.H. McDowell. 1981. “Acid rain,” dissolved aluminum, and chemical weathering at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45: 1421–1437.Google Scholar
  103. Joslin, J.D. and M.H. Wolfe. 1989. Aluminum effects on northern red oak seedling growth in six forest soil horizons. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 274–281.Google Scholar
  104. Kamprath, E.J. 1984. Crop response to lime on soils in the tropics. In: Soil Acidity and Liming, 2d Ed., F. Adams (ed.), pp. 349–368. Agronomy Monograph 12, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  105. Kennedy, V.C., G.W. Zellwerger, and B.F. Jones. 1974. Filter pore-size effects on the analysis of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ti in water. Water Resour Res 10: 785–790.Google Scholar
  106. Keyser, H.H. and D.N. Munns. 1979a. Effects of calcium, manganese, and aluminum on growth of rhizobia in acid media. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 500–503.Google Scholar
  107. Keyser, H.H. and D.N. Munns. 1979b. Tolerance of rhizobia to acidity, aluminum, and phosphate. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 519–523.Google Scholar
  108. Khanna, RK. and F. Beese. 1978. The behavior of sulfate on salt input in podzolic brown earth. Soil Sci 125: 16–22.Google Scholar
  109. Khanna, P.K., J. Prenzel, K.J. Meiwes, B. Ulrich, andE. Matzner. 1987. Dynamics of sulfate retention by acid forest soils in an acidic deposition environment. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 446–452.Google Scholar
  110. Kittrick, J. A. 1966. The free energy of formation of gibbsite and Al(OH)4- from solubility measurements. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 30: 595–597.Google Scholar
  111. Ko, W.H. and F.K. Hora. 1972. Identification of the Al ion as a soil fungitoxin. Soil Sci 113: 42–45.Google Scholar
  112. Krauskopf, K.B. 1972. Geochemistry of micronutrients. In: Micronutrients in Agriculture, J.J. Mortvedt etal. (eds.), pp. 7–40. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  113. Krug, E.C. and C.R. Frink. 1983. Acid rain on acid soil: A new perspective. Science 221: 520–525.Google Scholar
  114. Krug, E.C. and P. J. Isaacson. 1984. Comparison of water and dilute acid treatment on organic and inorganic chemistry of leachate from organic-rich horizons of an acid forest soil. Soil Sci 137: 370–378.Google Scholar
  115. Lee, E.H., H.E. Heggestad and J.E. Bennett. 1982. Effects of sulfur dioxide fumigation in open-top field chambers on soil acidification and exchangeable aluminum. J Environ Qual 11: 99–102.Google Scholar
  116. Lind, C.J. and J.D. Hem. 1975. Effects of organic solutes on chemical reactions of aluminum. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827-G.Google Scholar
  117. Lindberg, R.D. and D.D. Runnels. 1984. Groundwater redox reactions: An analysis of equilibrium state applied to Eh measurements and geochemical modeling. Science 225: 925–927.Google Scholar
  118. Lindberg, S.E., R.C. Harris and R.R. Turner. 1982. Atmospheric deposition of metals to forest vegetation. Science 215: 1609–1611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Lindsay, W.L. 1979. Chemical Equilibria in Soils. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  120. Loftus, N.S. 1971. Yellow-poplar root development on Hartsells subsoil. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Research Note SO-131.Google Scholar
  121. Malcom, R.L. and R.J. McCracken. 1968. Canopy drip: A source of mobile soil organic matter for mobilization of iron and aluminum. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38: 834–838.Google Scholar
  122. Matzner, E. and B. Ulrich. 1985. ‘Waldsterben’: our dying forests. II. Implications of the chemical soil conditions for forest decline. Experientia 41: 578–584.Google Scholar
  123. May, H.M., P.A. Helmke, and M.L. Jackson. 1979. Gibbsite solubility and thermodynamic properties of hydroxy-aluminum ions in aqueous solution at 25° C. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43: 861–868.Google Scholar
  124. Mayer, R. and B. Ulrich. 1977. Acidity of precipitation as influenced by the filtering of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen compounds—its role in the element balance and effect on soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 7: 409–416.Google Scholar
  125. McCormick, L.H. and K.C. Steiner. 1978. Variation in aluminum tolerance among six genera of trees. For Sci 24: 565–568.Google Scholar
  126. McFee, W.W. and C.S. Cronan. 1982. The action of wet and dry deposition components of acid precipitation on litter and soil. In: Acid Precipitation Effects on Ecological Systems, F.M. DTtri (ed.), pp. 435–451. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Science.Google Scholar
  127. McFee, W.W., J.M. Kelly and R.H. Beck. 1977. Acid precipitation effects on soil pH and base saturation of exchange sites. Water Air Soil Pollut 7: 401–408.Google Scholar
  128. McFee, W.W. and E.L. Stone. 1965. Quantity, distribution, and variability of organic matter and nutrients in a forest podzol in New York. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 29: 432–436.Google Scholar
  129. McLean, E.O. 1965. Aluminum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, C.A. Black etal. (eds.), pp. 978-998. Agronomy Monograph 9, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  130. Messenger, A.S. 1975. Climate, time, and organisms in relation to podzol development in Michigan sands. II. Relationships between chemical element concentrations in mature three foliage and upper humic horizons. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 39: 698–702.Google Scholar
  131. Messenger, A.S., J.R. Kline, and D. Wilderotter. 1978. Aluminum biocycling as a factor in soil change. Plant Soil 49: 703–709.Google Scholar
  132. Miller, S.S. and O.E. Schubert. 1977. Plant manganese and soil pH associated with internal bark necrosis in apple. Proc W Va Acad Sci 49: 97–102.Google Scholar
  133. Misra, U.K., R.W. Blanchar and W.J. Upchurch. 1974. Aluminum content of soil extracts as a function of pH and ionic strength. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38: 897–902.Google Scholar
  134. Moore, C.S. and G.S.P. Ritchie. 1988. Aluminum speciation and pH of an acid soil in the presence of fluoride. J Soil Sci 39: 1–8.Google Scholar
  135. Moore, P.A., Jr. and W.H. Patrick, Jr. 1989. Manganese availability and uptake by rice in acid sulfate soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 104–109.Google Scholar
  136. Morris, H,D. 1949. The soluble manganese content of acid soils and its relation to the growth and manganese content of sweet clover and lespedeza. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 13: 362–371.Google Scholar
  137. Motojima, K. and N. Ishiwatari. 1965. Determination of microamount of aluminum, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel in pure water by extraction photometry. J Nucl Sci Technol 2: 13–17.Google Scholar
  138. Mulder, J., J.J.M. van Grinsven, and N. van Breemen. 1987. Impacts of acid atmospheric deposition on woodland soils in the Netherlands: III. Aluminum chemistry. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 1640–1646.Google Scholar
  139. Nair, V.D. and J. Prenzel. 1978. Calculations of equilibrium concentration of mono- and polynuclear hydroxyaluminum species at different pH and total aluminum concentrations. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenkd 141: 741–751.Google Scholar
  140. Neilson, D.R. and J. Bouma (eds.). 1985. Soil spatial variability. In: Proceedings of a Workshop of the International Soil Science Society and the Soil Science Society of America, 30 Nov-1 Dec 1984, Las Vegas, Nevada. Netherlands: Pudoc Wageningen.Google Scholar
  141. Ng Kee Kwong, N.F. and P.M. Huang. 1979a. Surface reactivity of aluminum hydroxides precipitated in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 1107–1113.Google Scholar
  142. Ng Kee Kwong, N.F. and P.M. Huang. 1979b. The relative influence of low- molecular weight, complexing organic acids on the hydrolysis of aluminum. Soil Sci 128: 337–342.Google Scholar
  143. Ng Kee Kwong, N.F. and P.M. Huang. 1981. Comparison of the influence of tannic acid and selected low-molecular-weight organic acids on precipitation products of aluminum. Geoderma 26: 179–193.Google Scholar
  144. Nilsson, S.I. and B. Bergkvist. 1983. Aluminum chemistry and acidification processes in a shallow podzol on the Swedish west coast. Water Air Soil Pollut 20: 311–329.Google Scholar
  145. Nilsson, S.I., H.G. Miller and J.D. Miller. 1982. Forest growth as a possible cause of soil and water acidification: An examination of concepts. Oikos 30: 40–49.Google Scholar
  146. Nordstrom, D.K. 1982. The effect of sulfate on aluminum concentrations in natural waters: Some stability relations in the system A1203-S03-H20 at 298 K. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46: 681–692.Google Scholar
  147. Norton, S.A. 1979. Changes in chemical processes in soils caused by acid pre-cipitation. Water Air Soil Pollut 7: 389–400.Google Scholar
  148. Ogner, G. and O. Teigen. 1980. Effects of acid irrigation and liming on two clones of Norway spruce. Plant Soil 57: 305–321.Google Scholar
  149. Ohno, T., E.I. Sucoff, M.S. Ehrich, P. Bloom, C.A. Buschena, and R.K. Dixon. 1988. Growth and nutrient content of red spruce seedlings in soil amended with aluminum. J Environ Qual 17: 666–672.Google Scholar
  150. Olomu, M.D., G.J. Racz, and C.M. Cho. 1973. Effect of flooding on the Eh, pH, and concentrations of Fe and Mn in several Manitoba soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 37: 220–224.Google Scholar
  151. Paces, T. 1978. Reversible control of aqueous aluminum and silica during irreversible evolution of natural waters. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1487–1493.Google Scholar
  152. Parfitt, R.L. and M. Saigusa. 1985. Allophane and humus-aluminum in Spodosols and Andepts formed from the same volcanic ash beds in New Zealand. Soil Sci 139: 149–155.Google Scholar
  153. Pavan, M.A., F.T. Bingham, and P.F. Pratt. 1982. Toxicity of aluminum to coffee in Ultisols and Oxisols amended with CaCO3, MgCO3, and CaSO4 2H2O. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46: 1201–1207.Google Scholar
  154. Plankey, B.J. and H.H. Patterson. 1987. Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters. Environ Sci Technol 21: 595–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Plankey, B.J. and H.H. Patterson. 1988. Effect of fulvic acid on the kinetics of aluminum fluoride complexation in acidic waters. Environ Sci Technol 22: 1454–1459.Google Scholar
  156. Plankey, B.J., H.H. Patterson and C.S. Cronan. 1986. Kinetics of aluminum fluoride complexation in acidic waters. Environ Sci Technol 20: 160–165.Google Scholar
  157. Pohlman, A.A. and J.G. McColl. 1989. Organic oxidation and manganese and aluminum mobilization in forest soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 686–690.Google Scholar
  158. Powers, R.E 1984. Estimating soil nitrogen availability through soil and foliar analysis. In: Forest Soils and Treatment Impacts, E.L. Stone (ed.), pp. 353–379. Proceedings 6th North America Forest Soils Conference, June 1983. Knoxville: University of Tennessee.Google Scholar
  159. Reid, D.A. 1976. Genetic potentials for solving problems of soil mineral stress: Aluminum and manganese toxicities in the cereal grains. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Plant Adaptation to Mineral Stress in Problem Soils, pp. 55–64, Beltsville, Maryland, 22–23 November 1976. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station.Google Scholar
  160. Rhodes, E.R. and W.L. Lindsay. 1978. Solubility of aluminum in soils of the humid tropics. J Soil Sci 29: 324–330.Google Scholar
  161. Rich, C.I. 1968. Hydroxy interlayers in expansible layer silicates. Clays Clay Miner 16: 15–30.Google Scholar
  162. Richburg, J.S. and F. Adams. 1970. Solubility and hydrolysis of aluminum in soil solutions and saturated-paste extracts. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34: 728–734.Google Scholar
  163. Ritchie, G.S.P., M.P. Nelson, and M.G. Whitten. 1988. The estimation of free aluminum and the competition between fluoride and humate anions for aluminum. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 19: 857–871.Google Scholar
  164. Roberson, C.E. and J.D. Hem. 1969. Solubility of aluminum in the presence of hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate. U.S. Geological Surv Water Supply Paper 1827- C.Google Scholar
  165. Rousseau, L.Z. 1960. De l’influence du type d’humus sur le développement des plantules sapins dans les Vosges. Ann Ec Nat Eaux For Stn Rech Expér. 17: 13–118.Google Scholar
  166. Ruess, J.O. 1983. Implications of the calcium-aluminum exchange system for the effect of acid precipitation on soils. J Environ Qual 12: 591–595.Google Scholar
  167. Rutherford, G.K., G.W. vanLoon, and J.A. Hern. 1985. Chemical and pedogenetic effects of simulated acid precipitation on two eastern Canadian forest soils. II. Metals. Can J For Res 15: 848–854.Google Scholar
  168. Sanders, J.R. 1983. The effect of pH on the total and free ionic concentration of manganese, zinc, and cobalt in soil solutions. J Soil Sci 34: 315–323.Google Scholar
  169. Sannigrahi, A.K., P.C. Bishagee and S.K. Gupta. 1983. Distribution of different forms of iron and manganese in some lateritic soils of West Bengal under different forest vegetations. Ind Agric 27: 85–91.Google Scholar
  170. Scheir, G.A. 1985. Response of red spruce and balsam fir seedlings to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solutions. Can J For Res 15: 29–33.Google Scholar
  171. Schwab, A.R 1989. Manganese-phosphate solubility relationships in an acid soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 1654–1660.Google Scholar
  172. Schweitzer, G.E. and S.C. Black. 1985. Monitoring statistics: an important tool for groundwater and soil studies. Environ Sci Technol 19: 1026–1030.Google Scholar
  173. Seip, H. 1978. Acid snow-snowpack chemistry and snowmelt In: Effects of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Ecosystems, T.C. Hutchinson and M. Havas (eds.), pp. 77–94. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  174. Sikora, F.J. and M.B. McBride. 1989. Aluminum complexation by catechol as determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Environ Sci Technol 23: 349–346.Google Scholar
  175. Singh, S.S. and J.E. Brydon. 1967. Precipitation of aluminum by calcium hydroxide in the presence of Wyoming bentonite and sulfate ions. Soil Sci 103: 162–168.Google Scholar
  176. Singh, S.S. and J.E. Brydon. 1970. Activity of aluminum hydroxy sulfate and the stability of hydroxy aluminum interlayers in montmorrillonite. Clays Clay Miner 7: 114–124.Google Scholar
  177. Singh, S.S. and N.M. Miles. 1978. Effect of sulfate ions on the stability of an aluminum-interlayered Wyoming bentonite. Soil Sci 126: 323–329.Google Scholar
  178. Sivasubramaniam, S. and O. Talibudeen. 1972. Potassium-aluminum exchange in acid soils. I. Kinetics. J Soil Sci 23: 163–176.Google Scholar
  179. Smith, R.W. and J.D. Hem. 1972. Effect of aging on aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute aqueous solutions. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 827-D.Google Scholar
  180. Steiner, K.C., J.R. Barbour, and L.H. McCormick. 1984. Response of Populus hybrids to aluminum toxicity. Forest Sci 30: 404–410.Google Scholar
  181. Steiner, K.C., L.H. McCormick, and D.S. Canavera. 1980. Differential response of paper birch provenances to aluminum in solution culture. Can J For Res 10: 25–29.Google Scholar
  182. Stone, E.L. 1968. Microelement nutrition of forest trees. In: Forest Fertilization Theory and Practice, pp. 132–175. Tennessee Valley Authority, National Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama.Google Scholar
  183. Stuanes, A.O. 1983. Possible indirect long-term effects of acid precipitation on forest growth. Aquilo Ser Bot 19: 50–63.Google Scholar
  184. Thomas, G.W. 1974. Chemical reactions controlling soil solution electrolyte concentration. In: The Plant Root and Its Environment, E.W. Carson (ed.), pp. 483–506. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
  185. Thomas, G.W. 1988. Beyond exchangeable aluminum: Another ride on the merry- go-round. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 19: 833–856.Google Scholar
  186. Thomas, G.W. and W.L. Hargrove. 1984. The chemistry of soil acidity. In: Soil acidity and liming, 2d Ed., F. Adams (ed.), pp. 3–56. Agronomy Monograph 12, Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  187. Thompson, G.W. and R.J. Medve. 1984. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Applied Environ Microbiol 48: 556–560.Google Scholar
  188. Thornton, F.C., M. Schaedle, and D.J. Raynal. 1986a. Effect of aluminum on growth of sugar maple in solution culture. Can J For Res 16: 892–896.Google Scholar
  189. Thornton, F.C., M. Schaedle, and D.J. Raynal, and C. Zipperer. 1986b. Effect of aluminum on honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) seedlings in solution culture. J Exp Bot 37:775–785.Google Scholar
  190. Thornton, F.C., M. Schaedle, and D.J. Raynal. 1986c. Effects of aluminum on growth, development, and nutrient composition of honeylocust ( Gleditsia triacanthos L.) seedlings. Tree Physiol 2: 307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Thornton, F.C., M. Schaedle, and D.J. Raynal. 1987. Effects of aluminum on red spruce seedlings in solution culture. Environ Exp Bot 27: 489–498.Google Scholar
  192. Thornton, F.C., M. Schaedle, and D.J. Raynal. 1989. Tolerance of red oak and American and European beech seedlings to aluminum. J Environ Qual 18: 541–545.Google Scholar
  193. Tokashiki, Y., J. B. Dixon, and D. C. Golden. 1986. Manganese oxide analysis in soils by combined x-ray diffraction and selective dissolution methods. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:1079–1084.Google Scholar
  194. Tsai, P.R and P.H. Hsu. 1984. Studies of aged OH-A1 solutions using kinetics of Al-ferron reactions and sulfate precipitation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 59–65.Google Scholar
  195. Turner, R.C. 1969. Three forms of aluminum in aqueous systems determined by 8-quinolinolate extraction methods. Can J Chem 47: 2521–2527.Google Scholar
  196. Turner, R.C. 1971. Kinetics of reactions of 8-quinolinol and acetate with hydroxyaluminum species in aqueous solutions. 2. Initial solid phases. Can J Chem 49: 1688–1690.Google Scholar
  197. Turner, R.C. and W. Sulaiman. 1971. Kinetics of reactions of 8-quinolinol and acetate with hydroxyaluminum species in aqueous solutions. 1. Polynuclear hydroxy-aluminum cations. Can J Chem 49: 1683–1687.Google Scholar
  198. Ulrich, B. 1981a. ökologische Gruppierung von Böden nach ihrem chemischen Bodenzustand. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenkd 144: 289–305.Google Scholar
  199. Ulrich, B. 1981b. Destabilisierung vom Waldökosystem durch Akkumulation von Luftverunreinigungen. Forst Holzwirt 21: 525–532.Google Scholar
  200. Ulrich, B. 1983. Soil acidity and its relation to acid deposition. In: Effects of Accumulation of Air Pollutants in Forest Ecosystems, B. Ulrich and J. Pankrath (eds.), pp. 127–146. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  201. Ulrich, B., R. Mayer, and P.K. Khanna. 1980. Chemical changes due to acid precipitation in a loess-derived soil in Central Europe. Soil Sci 130: 193–199.Google Scholar
  202. Ulrich, B., K.J. Meiwes, N. König, and P.K. Khanna. 1984. Untersuchungsverfahren and Kriterien zur Bewertung der Versauerung und ihrer Folgen in Waldböden. Forst Holzwirt 39. van Breeman, N. 1973. Dissolved aluminum in acid sulfate soils and acid mine waters. Soil Sci Soc Am J 37: 694–697.Google Scholar
  203. van Breeman, N. and R. Brinkman. 1978. Chemical equilibria and soil formation. In: Soil Chemistry. A. Basic Elements, G.H. Bolt and M.G.M. Bruggenwert (eds.), pp. 141–170. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  204. van Breeman, N., C.T. Driscoll, and J. Mulder. 1984. Acidic deposition and internal proton sources in acidification of soils and water. Nature 307: 599–604.Google Scholar
  205. van Praag, H.J. and F. Weissen. 1985. Aluminum effects on spruce and beech seedlings. I. Preliminary observations on plant and soil. Plant Soil 83: 331–338.Google Scholar
  206. van Praag, H.J., F. Weissen, S. Sougnez-Remy, and G. Carletti. 1985. Aluminum effects on spruce and beech seedlings. II. Statistical analysis of sand culture experiments. Plant Soil 83: 339–356.Google Scholar
  207. Violante, A. and M.L. Jackson. 1981. Clay influence on the crystallization of aluminum hydroxide polymorphs in the presence of citrate, sulfate, and chloride. Geoderma 25: 199–214.Google Scholar
  208. Violante, A. and P. Violante. 1980. Influence of pH, concentration, and chelating power of organic anions on the synthesis of aluminum hydroxides and orthohydroxides in nitric acid. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 164–168.Google Scholar
  209. Voigt, G.K. 1980. Acid precipitation and soil buffering capacity. In: Proceedings of an International Conference on Ecological Impacts of Acid Precipitation, Sandefjord, Norway. 11-14 March 1980. SNSF Project, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  210. Wada, K. 1977. Allophane and imogolite. In: Minerals in Soil Environments, J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed (eds.), pp. 603–638. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  211. Wada, S. and K. Wada. 1980. Formation, composition and structure of hydroxy-aluminosilicate ions. J Soil Sci 31: 457–467.Google Scholar
  212. Wagatsuma, T. and M. Kaneko. 1987. High toxicity of hydroxy-aluminum polymer ion to plant roots. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 33: 57–67.Google Scholar
  213. Waite, T.D., I.C. Wrigley, and R. Szymczak. 1988. Photdassisted dissolution of colloidal manganese oxide in the presence of fulvic acid. Environ Sci Technol 22: 778–785.Google Scholar
  214. Wang, M.K., M.L. White and S.L. Hem. 1983. Influence of acetate, oxalate, and citrate anions on precipitation of aluminum hydroxide. Clays Clay Miner 31: 65–68.Google Scholar
  215. Weaver, G.T., P.K. Khanna, and F. Beese. 1985. Retention and transport of sulfate in a slightly acid forest soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49: 746–750.Google Scholar
  216. Wiklander, L. 1975. The role of neutral salts in the ion exchange between acid precipitation and soil. Geoderma 14: 93–105.Google Scholar
  217. Wilding, L.P. and L.R. Drees. 1983. Spatial variability and pedology. In: Pedogenesis and Soil Taxonomy. I. Concepts and Interactions, L.P. Wilding etal. (eds.), pp. 83–116. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  218. Winterhalder, E.K. 1963. Differential resistance of two species of Eucalyptus to soil manganese. Aust J Sci 25: 363–364.Google Scholar
  219. Wolfe, M.H., J.M. Kelly, and J.D. Wolt. 1987. Soil pH and extractable sulfate-sulfur distribution as influenced by tree species and distance from the stem. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 1042–1046.Google Scholar
  220. Wolt, J.D. 1981. Sulfate retention by acid-sulfate polluted soils in the Copper Basin area of Tennessee. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45: 283–287.Google Scholar
  221. Wolt, J. 1987. Soil Solution: Documentation, source code, and program key. Tennessee Agricultural Experimental Station Research Report No. 87–19.Google Scholar
  222. Wolt, J.D. and F. Adams. 1979. The release of sulfate from soil-applied basalu-minite and alunite. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 118–121.Google Scholar
  223. Wolt, J.D. and D.A. Lietzke. 1982. The influence of anthropogenic sulfur inputs upon soil properties in the Copper Basin region of Tennessee. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46: 651–656.Google Scholar
  224. Wright, M.J. (ed). 1976. Proceedings of a Workshop on Plant Adaptation to Mineral Stress in Problem Soils, 22–23 November 1976, Beltsville, Maryland. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station.Google Scholar
  225. Wright, R.J. and S.F. Wright. 1987. Effects of aluminum and calcium on the growth of subterranean clover in Appalachian soils. Soil Sci 143: 341–348.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey D. Wolt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations