Rates of Change of Soil Structure Under Different Cropping Systems

  • B. D. Kay
Part of the Advances in Soil Science book series (SOIL, volume 12)


The structure of soil can determine both the effectiveness and the impact of farming practices. Soil structure influences the extent to which crop breeding and the management of weeds, insects, disease, soil fertility, and water are manifested in increased crop yields. Soil structure also influences the loss of agricultural chemicals through erosion and leaching and can, therefore, have a significant bearing on the environmental impact of some agricultural practices.


Structural Form Elemental Volume Soil Structure Aggregate Size Soil Aggregate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abu-Sharar, T. M., F. T. Bingham, J. D. Rhoades, 1987. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity in relation to clay dispersion and disaggregation. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:342–346.Google Scholar
  2. Adu, J. K., J. M. Oades. 1978. Physical factors influencing decomposition of organic materials in soil aggregates. Soil Biol. Biockem. 10:109–115.Google Scholar
  3. Alderfer, R. B. 1946. Seasonal variability in the aggregation of Hagerstown silt loam. Soil Sci. 62:151–168.Google Scholar
  4. Ali, O. M., M. Yousaf, J. D. Rhoades. 1987. Effect of exchangeable cation & electrolyte concentration on mineralogy of clay dispersed from aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:896–900.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. P. E., R. A. Armstrong, S. N. Smith. 1981. Methods to evaluatepesticide damage to the biomass of the soil microflora. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:149–153.Google Scholar
  6. Angers, D. A., B. D. Kay, and P. H. Groenevelt. 1987. Compaction characteristics of a soil cropped to corn and bromegrass. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:779–783.Google Scholar
  7. Arya, L. M., and G. R. Blake. 1972. Stabilization of newly formed soil aggregates. Agron. J. 64:177–180.Google Scholar
  8. Baldock, J. A., B. D. Kay. 1987. Influence of cropping history and chemical treatments on the water stable aggregation of a silt loam soil. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 67:501–511.Google Scholar
  9. Ball, B. C. 1981. Pore characteristics of soils from two cultivation experiments as shown by gas diffusivities and permeabilities and air-filled porosities. J. Soil Sci. 32:483–498.Google Scholar
  10. Barber, D. A., J. K. Martin. 1976. The release of organic substances by cereal roots into soil. New Phytologist 76:69–80.Google Scholar
  11. Becher, H. H., M. Kainz. 1983. [Effects of long-term manuring on soil structure]. Z. Acker- Pflanzenbau 152:152–158.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, O. L., E. L. Mathias, C. B. Sperow. 1976. Double cropping for hay and no-tillage corn production as affected by sod species with rates of atrazine and nitrogen. Agron. J. 68:250–254.Google Scholar
  13. Benoit, G. R. 1973. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of three aggregate sizes. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 37:3–5.Google Scholar
  14. Bisal, F., W. S. Ferguson. 1968. Monthly and yearly changes in aggregate size of surface soils. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 48:159–164.Google Scholar
  15. Bisal, F., K. F. Nielsen. 1964. Soil aggregates do not necessarily break down over winter. Soil Sci. 98:345–346.Google Scholar
  16. Blackmore, A. V . 1981. Self-mulching soils. Soils News (Aust. Soc. Soil Sci.) July, p. 4.Google Scholar
  17. Blake, G. R., W. W. Nelson, R. R. Allmaras. 1976. Persistence of subsoil compaction in a Mollisol. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 40:943–948.Google Scholar
  18. Boekel, P. 1965. Handhaving van een goede bodemstructuur op klei-en zavelgronden. LandbouwL Tijdschr. 77:842–849.Google Scholar
  19. Boone, F. R. 1986. Towards soil compaction limits for crop growth. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 34:349–360.Google Scholar
  20. Bosatta, E., G. L. Agren. 1985. Theoretical analysis of decomposition of heterogeneous substrates. Soil Biol Biochem. 17:601–610.Google Scholar
  21. Bowen, H. D . 1981. Alleviating mechanical impedance in modifying the root environment to reduce stress. In: G. F. Arkin, H. M. Taylor (eds.), ASAE Mono. 4, Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng., St Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  22. Braunack, M. V., J. S. Hewitt, A. R. Dexter. 1979. Brittle fracture of soil aggregates and the compaction of aggregate beds. J. Soil Sci. 30:653–667.Google Scholar
  23. Brewer, R., A. D. Haldane. 1957. Preliminary experiments in the development of clay orientation in soil. Soil Sci. 84:301–309.Google Scholar
  24. Bui Huu Tri. 1968. Dynamique de la granulation du sol sous prairie. Ann. Agron. 19:415–439.Google Scholar
  25. Bullock, M. S., W. D. Kemper, S. D. Nelson. 1988. Soil cohesion as affected by freezing, water content, time and tillage. Soil Sci. Sac. Amer. J. 52:770–776.Google Scholar
  26. Bullock, P., A. C. D. Newman, A. J. Thomasson. 1985. Porosity aspects of the regeneration of soil structure after compaction. Soil Tillage Res. 5:325–341.Google Scholar
  27. Burns, R. G., and J. A. Davies. 1986. The microbology of soil structure. Biol. Agric. Hon. 3:95–113.Google Scholar
  28. Cannell, R. Q., D. B. Davies, D. Mackney, J. D. Pidgeon. 1978. The suitability of soils for sequential direct drilling of combined harvested crops in Britain: a provisional classification. Outlook on Agric. 9:306–316.Google Scholar
  29. Cassel, D. K. 1983. Spatial and temporal variability in soil physical properties following tillage of Norfolk loamy sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 47:196–201.Google Scholar
  30. Chamberlain, E. J., A. J. Gow. 1979. Effect of freezing and thawing on thepermeability & structure of soils. Eng. Geol. 13:73–92.Google Scholar
  31. Chan, K. Y. 1989a. Friability of a hardsetting soil under different tillage and land use practices. Soil Tillage Res. 13:287–298.Google Scholar
  32. Chan, K. Y. 1989b. Effect of tillage on aggregate strength & aggregation of vertisols. Soil Tillage Res. 13:163–175.Google Scholar
  33. Churchman, G. J., K. R. Tate. 1986. Effect of slaughterhouse effluent and water irrigation upon aggregation in seasonally dry New Zealand soil under pasture. Aust. J. Soil Res. 24:505–516.Google Scholar
  34. Churchman, G. J., K. R. Tate. 1987. Stability of aggregates of different size grades in allophanic soils from volcanic ash in New Zealand. J. Soil Sci. 38:19–27.Google Scholar
  35. Coote, D., C. A. Malcolm-McGovern, G. J. Wall, W. T. Dickinson, and R. P. Rudra. 1988. Seasonal variation of erodibility indices based on shear strength and aggregate stability in some Ontario soils. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:405–416.Google Scholar
  36. Coughlan, K. J., W. E. Fox, J. D. Hughes. 1973. Aggregation in swelling clay soils. Aust. J. Soil Res. 11:133–141.Google Scholar
  37. Croney, D., J. D. Coleman. 1954. Soil structure in relation to soil suction (pF). J. Soil Sci. 5:75–84.Google Scholar
  38. Croney, D., J. D. Coleman, W. P. M. Black. 1958. The movement and distribution of water in soil in relation to highway design and performance. Spec. Rep. 40, Highway Res. Bd., Washington, DC, pp. 226–252.Google Scholar
  39. Czeratzki, W., H. Frese. 1958. Importance of water in formation of soil structure. Spec. Rep. 40, Highway Res. Bd., Washington, DC, pp. 200–211.Google Scholar
  40. Dasog, G. S., D. F. Acton, A. R. Mermut, E. de Jong. 1988. Shrink swell potential and cracking in clay soils of Saskatchewan. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:251–260.Google Scholar
  41. Davenport, J. R., R. L. Thomas. 1988. Carbon partitioning and rhizodeposition in corn and bromegrass. Canad. J. Soil Sci.,68:693–701.Google Scholar
  42. Davenport, J. R., R. L. Thomas, S. C. Mott. 1988. Carbon mineralization of corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) components with an emphasis on the below-ground carbon. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20:471–476.Google Scholar
  43. Davies, P. 1985. Influence of organic matter content, moisture status and time after reworking on soil shear strength. J. Soil Sci. 36:299–306.Google Scholar
  44. de Boodt, M. (ed.) 1972. Fundamentals of soil conditioning. Meded. 37, Fak. Land-bouwwet., Rijksuniversiteit, Gent, de Boodt, M., and D. Gabriels (eds). 1976. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Soil Conditioning. Meded., Fak. Landbouwwet. Rijksuniversiteit. Gent.Google Scholar
  45. Dexter, A. R. 1985. Shapes of aggregates from tilled layers of some Dutch and Australian soils. Geoderma 35:91–107.Google Scholar
  46. Dexter, A. R. 1986a. Model experiments on the behaviour of roots at the interface between a tilled seed-bed and a compacted sub-soil II: Entry of pea and wheat roots into sub-soil cracks. Plant and Soil 95:135–147.Google Scholar
  47. Dexter, A. R. 1986b. Model experiments on the behaviour of rots at the interface between a filled seed-bed and a compacted sub-soil. Plant and Soil 95:149–161.Google Scholar
  48. Dexter, A. R. 1987a. Mechanics of root growth. Plant and Soil 98:303–312.Google Scholar
  49. Dexter, A. R. 1987b. Compression of soil around roots. Plant and Soil 97:401–406.Google Scholar
  50. Dexter, A. R. 1988. Advances in characterization of soil structure. Soil Tillage Res. 11:199–238.Google Scholar
  51. Dexter, A. R., R. Horn, W. D. Kemper. 1988. Two mechanisms for age-hardeningof soil. J. Soil Sci. 39:163–175.Google Scholar
  52. Dexter, A. R., B. Kroesbergen, H. Kuipers. 1984. Some mechanical properties of aggregates of top soils from the IJsselmeer polders. 2: Remolded soil aggregates and the effect of wetting and drying cycles. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 32:215–227.Google Scholar
  53. Donald, R. G., B. D. Kay, M. H. Miller. 1987. The effect of soil aggregate size on early shoot and root growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Soil 103:251–259.Google Scholar
  54. Doran, J. W., L. N. Mielke, S. Stamatiadas. 1988. Microbial activity and N cycling as regulated by soil water-filled pore space, pp. 49–54. In: Proc. 11th Int. Conf., Int. Soil Tillage Res. Org., Edinburgh, Scotland, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  55. Douglas, J. T. 1986. Effects of season and management on the vane shear strength of a clay topsoil. J. Soil Sci. 37:669–679.Google Scholar
  56. Douglas, J. T., M. G. Jarvis, K. R. House, M. J. Goss. 1986. Structure of a silty loam in relation to management. J. Soil Sci. 37:137–151.Google Scholar
  57. Duffey, J. E., H. Halen, R. Frankart. 1986. Evolution de la stabilite structurale du sol sous rinfluence des racines de trefle (Trifolium pratense L.) et de ray-grass (Lolium multiflorum Lmk): Observations pendant et apres culture. Agronomie 6:811–817.Google Scholar
  58. Dwyer, L. M., D. W. Stewart, D. Balchin. 1988. Rooting characteristics of corn soybeans and barley as a function of available water and soil physical characteristics. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:121–132.Google Scholar
  59. Edwards, C. A., J. R. Lofty. 1972. Biology of earthworms. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  60. Edwards, W. M., L. D. Norton, C. E. Redmond. 1988. Characterizing macropores that affect infltration into nontilled soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 52:483–487.Google Scholar
  61. Egashira, K., Y. Kaetsu, K. Takkuma. 1983. Aggregate stability as an index of erodibility of Ando soils. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 29:473–481.Google Scholar
  62. Elkins, C. B., R. L. Haaland, C. S. Hoveland. 1977. Grass roots as a tool for penetrating soil hardpans and increasing crop yields, pp. 21–26. In: Proc. 34th Southern Pasture and Forage Improvement Conf., Auburn AL.Google Scholar
  63. Elliott, E. T. 1986. Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native & cultivated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50:627–633.Google Scholar
  64. Elliott, L. F., J. M. Lynch. 1984. The effect of available carbon and nitrogen in straw on soil & ash aggregation & acetic acid production. Plant and Soil 78:335–343.Google Scholar
  65. Elliott, E. T., R. V. Anderson, D. C. Coleman, C. V. Cole. 1980. Habitable pore space and microbial trophic interactions. Oikos 34:327–335.Google Scholar
  66. Emerson, W. W . 1954. The determination of the stability of soil crumbs. J. Soil Sci.5:235–350.Google Scholar
  67. Emerson, W. W. 1955. The rate of water uptake of soil crumbs at low suctions. J. Soil Sci. 6:147–159.Google Scholar
  68. Emerson, W. W. 1959. The structure of soil crumbs. J. Soil Sci. 10:235–243.Google Scholar
  69. Emerson, W. W. 1967. A classification of soil aggregates based on their coherence in water. Aust. J. Soil Res. 5:47–57.Google Scholar
  70. Emerson, W. W . 1983. Inter-particle bonding in soils: An Australian viewpoint. Div. of Soils, CSIRO, Melbourne. Academic Press, London, pp. 477–498. Google Scholar
  71. Emerson, W. W., R. D. Bond, A. R. Dexter. 1978. Modification of soil structure. Wiley, Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  72. Emerson, W. W., R. C. Foster, , J. M. Oades. 1986. Organo-mineral complexes in relation to soil aggregation and structure. In: Interaction of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes. SSSA Spec. Pub. 17, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison WI.Google Scholar
  73. Emmond, G. S. 1971 Effect of rotations, tillage treatments & fertilizers on the aggregation of a clay soil. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 51:235–241.Google Scholar
  74. Foster, R. C. 1988. Microenvironments of soil microorganisms. Biol. Per til. Soils 6:189–203.Google Scholar
  75. Fox, W. E. 1964. Cracking characteristics and field capacity in a swelling soil. Soil Sci. 98:413.Google Scholar
  76. Francis, P. B., R. M. Cruse. 1983. Soil water matric potential effects on aggregate stability. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 47:578–581.Google Scholar
  77. Gameda, S., G. S. V. Raghaven, E. McKeyes, R. Theriault. 1987. Subsoil compaction in a clay soil. I: Cumulative effects. Soil Tillage Res. 10:113–122.Google Scholar
  78. Gerard, C. J. 1987. Laboratory experiments on the effects of antecedent moisture and residue application on aggregation of different soils. Soil Tillage Res. 9:21–32.Google Scholar
  79. Gibbs, R. J., J. B. Reid. 1988. A conceptual model of changes in soil structure under different cropping systems. Adv. Soil Sci. 8:123–149.Google Scholar
  80. Gifford, R. O., D. F. Thran. 1974. Bonding mechanisms for soil crusts: Part II. Strength of silica cementation. In: J. W. Cary, D. D. Evans (eds.), Soil crusts. Tech. Bull. 214, Agric. Res. Stn., Univ. Ariz., Tucson.Google Scholar
  81. Goss, M. J., W. Ehlers, F. R. Boone, I. White, K. R. House. 1984. Effects of soil management practice on soil physical conditions affecting root growth. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 30:131–140.Google Scholar
  82. Grant, C.D. 1989. Soil structure and tensile strength in relation to the microtopography of soil fracture surfaces. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Dept. Soil Sci., Waite Agric. Res. Inst., Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.Google Scholar
  83. Grant, C.D., A. R. Dexter. 1989. Generation of microcracks in moulded soils by rapid wetting. Aust. J. Soil Res. 27:169–182.Google Scholar
  84. Grant, C. D., B. D. Kay, P. H. Groenevelt, G. E. Kidd, and G. W. Thurtell. 1985. Spectral analysis of micropenetrometer data to characterize soil structure. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 65:789–804.Google Scholar
  85. Greacen, E. L. 1958. The soil structure under pastures. Aust. J. Soil Res. 9:129–137.Google Scholar
  86. Greacen, E. L., D. A. Farrell, , B. Cockroft. 1968. Soil resistance to metal probes and plant roots. Trans. 9th Int. Cong. Soil Sci., Adelaide, vol. 1. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, Australia, pp. 769–779.Google Scholar
  87. Greenland, D. J., D. Rimmer, D. Payne. 1975. Determination of the structural stability class of English and Welsh soils, using a water coherence test. J. Soil Sci. 26:294–303.Google Scholar
  88. Gregorich, E., R. G. Kachanoski, R. P. Voroney. 1988. Ultrasonic dispersion of aggregates: Distribution of organic matter in size fractions. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:395–403.Google Scholar
  89. Grevers, M. C G., E. de Jong. 1988. The use of differential imagery in the characterization of soil macrostructure. In: Abstracts, Canad. Soc. Soil Sci. Ann. Meet., Univ. of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  90. Groenevelt, P. H., B. D. Kay. 1981. On pressure distribution & effective stress in unsaturated soils. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 61:431–143.Google Scholar
  91. Groenevelt, P. H., B. D. Kay, C. D. Grant, 1984. Physical assessment of a soil with respect to rooting potential. Geoderma 34:101–114.Google Scholar
  92. Guerif, J. 1988. Résistance en traction des agrégats terreus: Influence de la texture de la mtière organique et de la teneur en eau. Agronomie 8:379–386.Google Scholar
  93. Guidi, G., G. Poggio, G. Petruzelli. 1985. The porosity of soil aggregates from bulk soil and soil adhering to roots. Plant Soil 87:311–314.Google Scholar
  94. Gumbel, E. J. 1960. Statistics of extremes. Columbia Univ. Press, NY. Hadas, A. 1987a. Dependence of “true” surface energy of soils on air entry pore size and chemical constituents. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:187–191.Google Scholar
  95. Hadas, A. 1987b. Long-term tillage practice effects on soil aggregation modes and strength. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:191–197.Google Scholar
  96. Hakansson, I. 1985. Swedish experiments on sub-soil compaction by vehicles with high axle load. Soil Use Mgt. 1:113–116.Google Scholar
  97. Hakansson, I., W. B. Voorhees, , H. Riley. 1988. Vehicle and wheel factors influencing soil compaction and crop response in different traffic regimes. Soil Tillage Res.11:239–282.Google Scholar
  98. Hamblin, A. 1985. The influence of soil structure on water movement, crop growth and water uptake. Adv. Agron. 38:95–155.Google Scholar
  99. Hantschel, R., M. Kaupenjohann, R. Horn, J. Gradl, and W. Zech. 1988. Ecologically important differences between equilibrium and percolation soil extracts, Bavaria. Geoderma 43:213–227.Google Scholar
  100. Hardan, A., A. N. Al-Ani. 1978. Improvement of soil structure by using date and sugar beet waste products. In: W. W. Emerson, R. D. J. Bond, A. R. Dexter (eds.), Modification of soil structure. Wiley, Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  101. Harris, R. F., G. Chesters, O. N. Allen. 1966. Dynamics of soil aggregation. Adv. Agron. 18:107–169.Google Scholar
  102. Heinonen, R. 1977. Towards a a “normal” soil bulk density. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 41:1214–1215.Google Scholar
  103. Heinonen, R. 1982. Alleviation of soil compaction by natural forces and cultural practices. In: Proc. Int. Conf. Land Clearing and Development, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  104. Helal, H. M., D. R. Sauerbeck. 1984. Influence of plant roots on C and P metabolism in soil. Plant Soil 76:175–182.Google Scholar
  105. Hetier, J. M., F. Andreux, E. Schouller, C. Marol. 1986. Organic matter inputs to soil after growth of carbon- 14-nitrogen-15 labelled maize. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50:76–80.Google Scholar
  106. Hettiaratchi, D. 1988. Theoretical soil mechanics and implement design. Soil Tillage Res. 11:325–348.Google Scholar
  107. Horn, R., A. R. Dexter. 1989. E)ynamics of soil aggregation in an irrigated desert loess. Soil Tillage Res. 13:253–266.Google Scholar
  108. Horn, R., P. S. Blackwell, R. White. 1988, The effect of stress duration on the pressure transmission in an ameliorated red-brown earth under irrigation. In: Proc 11th Int. Conf. Int. Soil and Tillage Res. Org., Edinburgh, Scotland, vol. 2, pp. 492–498.Google Scholar
  109. Hundal, S. S., G. O. Schwab, G. S. Taylor. 1976. Drainage system effects on physical properties of a lakebed clay soil. Soil Set. Soc. Amer. J. 40:300–305.Google Scholar
  110. Ingles, O. G. 1962. Bonding forces in soils. Part III: A theory of tensile strength for stabilized and naturally coherent soils. Proc. Aust. Rd. Res. Bd. 1(2): 1025–1047.Google Scholar
  111. Jastrow, J. D. 1987. Changes in soil aggregation associated with tallgrass prairie restoration. Amer. J. Bot. 74:1656–1664.Google Scholar
  112. Jenkinson, D. S., J. H. Rayner. 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soli Sci. 123:298–305.Google Scholar
  113. Johnston, A. E. 1986. Soil organic matter, effects on soils & crops. Soil Use Mgt. 2:97–105.Google Scholar
  114. Katou, H, K. Miyaji, T. Kubota. 1987. Susceptibility of undisturbed soils to compression as evaluated from the changes in the soil water characteristic curves. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 33:539–554.Google Scholar
  115. Kay, B. D., E. Perfect. 1988. State of the art: heat and mass transfer in freezing soils. In: Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Ground Freezing, Nottingham, UK, vol. 1, pp. 3–22.Google Scholar
  116. Kay, B. D., C. D. Grant, P. H. Groenevelt. 1985. Significance of ground freezing on soil bulk density under zero tillage. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 49:973–978.Google Scholar
  117. Kay, B. D., D. A. Angers, P. H. Groenevelt, J. A. Baldock. 1988. Quantifying the influence of cropping history on soil structure. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:359–368.Google Scholar
  118. Kemper, W. D., R. C. Rosenau. 1984. Soil cohesion as affected by time & water content. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 48:1001–1006.Google Scholar
  119. Kemper, W. D., R. C. Rosenau, A. R. Dexter. 1987. Cohesion development in disrupted soils as affected by clay and organic matter content and temperature. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:860–867.Google Scholar
  120. Kemper, W. D., M. Bullock, A. R. Dexter. 1988. Soil cohesion changes, pp. 81–95. In: W. E. Larson et al. (eds.), Mechanics and related processes in structured agricultural soils. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  121. Kirby, P. C., G. R. Mehuys. 1987. Seasonal variation of soil erodibilities in southwestern Quebec. J. Soil Water Conserv. 42:211–215.Google Scholar
  122. Kladivko, E. J., A. D. Mackay, J. M. Bradford. 1986. Earthworms as a factor in the reduction of soil crusting. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50:191–196.Google Scholar
  123. Knapp, E. B., L. F. Elliott, G. S. Campbell. 1983. Carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomas interrelationships during the decomposition of wheat straw: a mechanistic simulation model. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15:455–461.Google Scholar
  124. Koolen, A. J., H. Kuipers. 1983. Agricultural soil mechanics. Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  125. Kretschmer, A. 1982. Description des galerres des vers de terre et variation saisonniere des reseaux (observation en conditions naturelles). Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 19:579–591.Google Scholar
  126. Lal, P., G. F. Wilson, and B. N. Okigbo. 1979. Changes in properties of an alfisol produced by various cover crops. Soil Sci. 127:377–382.Google Scholar
  127. Ladd, C. C. 1960. Mechanisms of swelling by compacted clay. Bull. 245, Highway Res. Bd., Washington, DC, pp. 10–26.Google Scholar
  128. Larson, W. E., S. C. Gupta, R. A. Useche. 1980. Compression of agricultural soils from eight soil orders. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 44:450–457.Google Scholar
  129. Lee, K. E. 1985. Earthworms: Their ecology and relationships with soils and land use. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  130. Letey, J. 1985. Relationship between soil physical properties and crop productions, pp. 277–294. In: B. A. Stewart (ed.), Advances in Soil Science, vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  131. Linell, K. A., C. W. Kaplar. 1959. The factor of soil and material type in frost action. Bull. 255, Highway Res. Bd., Washington, DC, pp. 81–125.Google Scholar
  132. Logsdon, S. D., J. C. Parker, R. B. Reneau. 1987. Root growth as influenced by aggregate size. Plant Soil 99:267–275.Google Scholar
  133. Low, A. J. 1955. Improvements in the structural state of soil under leys. J. Soil Sci. 6:177–199.Google Scholar
  134. Low, A. J. 1972. The effect of cultivation on the structure & other physical properties of grassland and arable soils (1945–1970). J. Soil Sci. 23:363–380.Google Scholar
  135. Low, P. F. 1980. The swelling of clay: II Montmorillonites. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 44:667–676.Google Scholar
  136. Lynch, J. M. 1984. Interactions between biological processes, cultivation & soil structure. Plant Soil 76:307–318.Google Scholar
  137. Lynch, J. M., L. M. Panting. 1980. Cultivation and the soil biomas. Soil BiolBiochem. 12:29–33.Google Scholar
  138. Mann, L. K. 1986. Changes in soil carbon storage after cultivation. Soil Sci. 142:279–288.Google Scholar
  139. McGaw, R. 1972. Frost heaving versus depth to water table. Highw. Res. Rec. 393:45–55.Google Scholar
  140. McGill, W. B., K. R. Cannon, J. R. Robertson, F. D. Cook. 1986. Dynamics of soil microbial biomass and water soluble organic C in Breton L after 50 years of cropping to two rotations. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 66:1–19.Google Scholar
  141. McKenzie, B. M., A. R. Dexter. 1985. Mellowing & anisotropy induced by wetting of moulded soil samples. Aust. J. Soil Res. 23:37–47.Google Scholar
  142. McKenzie, B. M., A. R. Dexter. 1988. Radial pressures generated by the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea. Biol. Fertil. Soils 5:328–332.Google Scholar
  143. Merckx, R., A. den Hortog, J. A. van Veen. 1985. Turnover of root-derived material and related microbial biomass formation in soils of different texture. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17:565–569.Google Scholar
  144. Mermut, A. R., R. J. St. Amaud. 1981. Microband fabric in seasonally frozen soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 45:578–586.Google Scholar
  145. Metting, B. 1986. Population dynamics of Chlamydomonas sajao and its influence on soil aggregate stabilization in the field. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 51:1161–1164.Google Scholar
  146. Miller, R. D. 1980. Freezing phenomena in soils, pp. 254–299. In: D. Hillel (ed.), Applications of soil physics. Academic Press, NY.Google Scholar
  147. Miller, W. P., M. K. Baharuddin. 1986. Relationship of soil dispersibility to infiltration and erosion of southeastern soils. Soil Sci. 142:235–240.Google Scholar
  148. Mirreh, H. F., J. W. Ketcheson. 1973. Influence of soil water matric potential and resistance to penetration on corn root elongation. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 53:383–388.Google Scholar
  149. Misra, R. K., A. R. Dexter, A. M. Alston. 1986. Maximum axial and radial growth pressures of plant roots. Plant Soil 95:315–326.Google Scholar
  150. Misra, R. K., A. M. Alston, A. R. Dexter. 1988. Root growth and phosphorus uptake in relation to the size and strength of soil aggregates. I: Experimental studies. Soil Tillage Res. 11:103–116.Google Scholar
  151. Mitchell, J. K . 1960. Fundamental aspects of thixotropy in soils. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., Amer. Soc. Civil Eng. 86(SM3): 19–52.Google Scholar
  152. Mitchell, J. K. 1976. Fundamentals of soil behaviour. Wiley, NY. Mokhtaruddin, M. de Boodt. 1983. Evaluation of sensitivity to slaking by bulk densitymeasurements of disrupted fragments (aggregates). Pertanika 6:90–94.Google Scholar
  153. Molope, M. B. 1987. Soil aggregate stability: the contribution of biological and physical processes. S. Afr. J. Plant Soil 43:121–126.Google Scholar
  154. Molope, M. B., E. R. Page. 1986. The contribution of fungi, bacteria and physical processes in the development of aggregate stability of a cultivated soil. Biol. Agr. Hort. 3:233–249.Google Scholar
  155. Molope, M. B., I. C. Grieve, E. R. Page. 1985. Thixotropic changes in the stability of molded soil aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 49:979–983.Google Scholar
  156. Morgenstern, N. R., J. F. Nixon. 1971. One-dimensional consolidation of thawing soils. Canad. Geotech. J. 8:558–565.Google Scholar
  157. Muneer, M., J. M. Oades. 1989a. The role of Ca-organic interactions in soil aggregate stability. 1: Laboratory studies with l4C-glucose, CaCO3 and CaSO4.-2H2O. Aust. J. Soil Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  158. Muneer, M., J. M. Qades. 1989b. The role of Ca-organic interactions in soil aggregate stability. 2: Field studies with 14C-Iabelled straw, CaC03 and CaSO4.-2H2O.Aust. J. Soil Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  159. Muneer, M., J. M. Oades. 1989c. The role of Ca-organic interactions in soil aggregate stability. 3: Mechanisms and models. Aust. J. Soil Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  160. Nagasawa, T., Y. Umeda. 1985. Effects of the freeze-thaw process on soil structure. In: Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Ground Freezing, Sapporo, Japan, vol. II, pp. 219–230.Google Scholar
  161. Nikiforoff, C. C. 1941. Morphological classification of soil structure. Soil Sci. 52:193–212.Google Scholar
  162. Oades, J. M. 1984. Soil organic matter and structural stability: mechanism and implications for management. Plant Soil 76:319–337.Google Scholar
  163. Oades, J. M., A. G. Waters, A. M. Vassallo, M. A. Wilson, G. P. Jones. 1988. Influence of management on the composition of organic matter in a red-brown earth as shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Aust. J. Soil Res. 26:289–299.Google Scholar
  164. Ojeniyi, S. O., A. R. Dexter. 1979a. Soil factors affecting the macrostructures produced by tillage. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. 22:339–343.Google Scholar
  165. Ojeniyi, S. O., A. R. Dexter. 1979b. Soil structural changes during multiple pass tillage. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. 22:1068–1072.Google Scholar
  166. Page, E. R. 1982. Soil conditioners. Sci. Hort. 33:1–13.Google Scholar
  167. Pagliai, M., G. Guidi, M. La Marca, M. Giachetti, G. Lucanante. 1981. Effects of sewage sludges and compost on soil porosity and aggregation. J. Envir. Qual. 10:556–561.Google Scholar
  168. Panabokke, C. R., J. P. Quirk. 1957. Effect of initial water content on the stability of soil aggregates in water. Soil Sci. 83:185–189.Google Scholar
  169. Parton, W. J., D. S. Schimel, C. V. Cole, D. S. Ojima. 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:1173–1179.Google Scholar
  170. Pawluk, S. 1988. Freeze-thaw effects on granular structure reorganization for soil materials of varying texture and moisture content. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:485–194.Google Scholar
  171. Perfect, E., B. D. Kay, W. K. P. van Loon, R. W. Sheard, T. Pojasok. 1989a. Seasonal variation in soil structural stability under forages compared to corn. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  172. Perfect, E., B. D. Kay, W. K. P. van Loon, R. W. Sheard, T. Pojasok. 1989b. Rates of change in soil structural stability under forages compared to corn. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  173. Power, J. F. 1987. The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems. Soil Cons. Soc. Amer., Ankenny, IA.Google Scholar
  174. Powlson, D. S. 1980. The effects of grinding on microbial and non-microbial organic matter in soil. J. Soil Sci. 31:77–85.Google Scholar
  175. Quirk, J. P., B. G. Williams. 1974. The disposition of organic materials in relation to stable aggregation. Trans. 10th Cong., Int. Soc. Soil Sci., Moscow, vol. 1, pp. 165–173.Google Scholar
  176. Ramsay, A. J., R. E. Stannard, G. J. Churchman. 1986. Effect of conversion from ryegrass pasture to wheat cropping on aggregation and bacterial populations in a silt loam soil in New Zealand. Aust. J. Soil Res. 24:253–264.Google Scholar
  177. Reid, J. B., M. J. Goss. 1982. Interactions between soil drying due to plant water use and decreases in aggregate stability caused by maize roots. J. Soil Sci. 33:47–53.Google Scholar
  178. Reid, J. B., M. J. Goss, P. D. Robertson. 1982. Relationship between the decrease in soil stability affected by the growth of maize roots and changes in organically bound iron and aluminium. J. Soil Sci. 33:397–410.Google Scholar
  179. Rengasamy, P., R. S. B. Greene, G. W. Ford, A. H. Mehanni. 1984. Identification of dispersive behaviour and management of red-brown earths. Aust. J. Soil Res. 22 413–431.Google Scholar
  180. Rengasamy, P., R. S. B. Greene, G. W. Ford. 1986. Influences of magnesium on aggregate stability in sodic red-brown earths. Aust. J. Soil Res. 24:229–237.Google Scholar
  181. Rovira, A. D., E. L. Greacen. 1957. The effect of aggregate disruption on the activity of microorganisms in soil. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 8:659–673.Google Scholar
  182. Schubler, Prof. 1840. On the physical properties of soil, and on the means of investigating them. J. R. Agric. Soc. 1:177–218.Google Scholar
  183. Scott. T. W., J. Mt. Pleasant, R. F. Burt, D. J. Otis. 1987. Contributions of ground cover, dry matter, and nitrogen from intercrops and cover crops in a corn polyculture system. Agron. J. 79:792–798.Google Scholar
  184. Scott Russell, R. 1977. Plant root systems. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, UK.Google Scholar
  185. Shanmuganathan, R. T., and J. M. Oades. 1982. Effect of dispersible clay on the physical properties of the B horizon of a red-brown earth. Aust. J. Soil Res. 20:315–324.Google Scholar
  186. Shanmuganathan, R. T., J. M. Oades. 1983a. Influence of anions on dispersion and physical properties of the A horizon of a red-brown earth. Geoderma 29:257–277.Google Scholar
  187. Shanmuganathan, R. T., J. M. Oades. 1983b. Modification of soil physical properties by addition of calcium compounds. Aust. J. Soil Res. 21:285–300.Google Scholar
  188. Shaviv, A., I. Ravina, D. Zaslavsky. 1987. Application of soil conditioner solutions to soil columns to increase water stability of aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:431–436.Google Scholar
  189. Shiel, R. S., M. A. Adey, M. Lodder. 1988. The effect of successive wet/dry cycles on aggregate size distribution in a clay texture soil. J. Soil Sci. 39: 71–80.Google Scholar
  190. Shipitalo, M. J., R. Protz, 1987. Comparison of morphology and porosity of a soil under conventional and zero tillage. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 67:445–456.Google Scholar
  191. Shipitalo, M. J., R. Protz. 1988. Factors influencing the dispersibility of clay in worm casts. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 52:764–769.Google Scholar
  192. Shipitalo, M. J., R. Protz, A. D. Tomlin. 1988. Effect of diet on the feeding and casting activity of Lumbricus Terrestris andL. Rubellus in laboratory culture. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20:233–237.Google Scholar
  193. Sillanpaa, M., L. R. Webber. 1961. The effect of freeze-thawing and wetting-drying cycles on soil aggregation. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 41:182–187.Google Scholar
  194. Skidmore, E. L., D. H. Powers. 1982. Dry soil aggregate stability: energy based index. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 46:1274–1279.Google Scholar
  195. Skjemstad, J. O., R. C. Dalai. 1987. Spectroscopic and chemical differences in organic matter of two vertisols subjected to long periods of cultivation. Aust. J. Soil Res. 25:323–335.Google Scholar
  196. Skjemstad, J. O., R. C. Dalal, P. F. Baron. 1986. Spectroscopic investigations of cultivation effects on organic matter of vertisols. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50:354–359.Google Scholar
  197. Soane, B. D. (ed.) 1982. Compaction by agricultural vehicles: a review. Scottish Inst, of Agric. Eng., Penicuik, Scotland.Google Scholar
  198. Spoor, G . 1988. Improving the effectiveness of tillage operations. In: Proc. Soil Mgt. ’88, Darling Downs Inst. Adv. Educ, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  199. Spoor, G., S. M. Miller, H. T. Breay. 1988. Timeliness and machine performance benefits from controlled traffic systems in sugar beet. pp. 317–322. In: Proc. 11th Conf. Int. Soil Tillage Res. Org., Edinburgh, Scotland, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  200. SSSA. 1975. Soil Conditioners. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  201. Stefanson, R. C . 1968. Factors determining the seasonal changes in the stabilities of soil aggregates. Trans. 9th Cong. Int. Soil Sci. Soc, Adelaide, vol. 2. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, Australia, pp. 395–402.Google Scholar
  202. Stengel, P . 1988. Cracks formation during swelling: effects on soil structure regeneration after compaction, pp. 147–152. In: Proc. 11th Conf. Int. Soil Tillage Res. Org., Edinburgh, Scotland, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  203. Stone, J. A., B. R. Buttery. 1989. Nine forages and the aggregation of a clay loam soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 69:165–169.Google Scholar
  204. Stone, J. A., N. H. E. Allen, C. D. Grant. 1985. Corn fertility treatments and the surface structure of a poorly drained soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 49:1001–1004.Google Scholar
  205. Stypa, M., A. Nunez-Barrios, D. A. Berry, M. H. Miller, W. A. Mitchell. 1987. Effects of sub-soil bulk density, nutrient availability and soil moisture on corn root growth in the field. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 67:293–308.Google Scholar
  206. Taylor, J. H. 1987. A rationale for controlled traffic research. Acta Hort. 210:9–18.Google Scholar
  207. Taylor, J. H., E. C. Burt. 1987. Total axle load effects on soil compaction. J. Terramechanics 24:179–186.Google Scholar
  208. Terpstra. R . 199. Formation of new aggregates under laboratory-simulated field conditions. Soil Tillage Res. 13:13–21.Google Scholar
  209. Thomasson, A. J. 1978. Towards an objective classification of soil structure. J. Soil Sci. 29:38–46.Google Scholar
  210. Tiessen, H., J. W. B. Stewart, H. Hunt. 1984. Concepts of soil organic matter transformations in relation to organo-mineral plarticle size fractions. Plant Soil 76:287–295.Google Scholar
  211. Tisdall, J. M., H. H. Adem. 1986. Effect of water content of soil at tillage on size-distribution of aggregates and infiltration. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 26:193–195.Google Scholar
  212. Tisdall, J. M., J. M. Oades. 1980a. The management of ryegrass to stabilize aggregates of a red-brown earth. Aust. J. Soil Res. 18:415–422.Google Scholar
  213. Tisdall, J. M., J. M. Oades. 1980b. The effect of crop rotation on aggregation in a red-brown earth. Aust. J. Soil Res. 18:423–433.Google Scholar
  214. Tisdall, J. M., J. M. Oades. 1982. Organic matter and water stable aggregates in soils. J. Soil Sci. 33:141–163.Google Scholar
  215. Tisdall, J. M., B. Cockroft, N. C. Uren. 1978. The stability of soil aggregates as affected by organic materials, microbial activity and physical disruption. Aust. J. Soil Res. 16:9–17.Google Scholar
  216. Toogood, J. A., D. L. Lynch. 1959. Effect of cropping systems and fertilizers on mean weight-diameter of aggregates of Breton plot soils. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 39:151–156.Google Scholar
  217. Towner, G. D. 1986. The influence of particle size distribution on soil physical properties. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 106:527–535.Google Scholar
  218. Towner, G. D. 1987. The tensile stress generated in clay during drying. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 37:279–289.Google Scholar
  219. Towner, G. D. 1988. The influence of sand and silt-sized particles on the cracking during drying of small clay-dominated aggregates. J. Soil Sci. 39:347–356.Google Scholar
  220. Tu, J. D., S. C. Tan. 1988. Soil compaction effect on photosynthesis, root rot severity and growth of white beans. Canad. J. Soil Sci. 68:455–457.Google Scholar
  221. Tullberg, J. N . 1988. Controlled traffic in sub-tropical grain production, pp. 323–327. In: Proc. 11th Conf. Intl. Soil Tillage Res. Org., Edinburgh, Scotland, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  222. Utomo, W. H., A. R. Dexter. 1981a. Tilth mellowing. J. Soil Sci. 32:187–201.Google Scholar
  223. Utomo, W. H., A. R. Dexter. 1981b. Age hardening of agricultural top soils. J. Soil Sci. 32:335–350.Google Scholar
  224. Utomo, W. H., A. R. Dexter. 1981c. Soil friability. J. Soil Sci. 32:203–213.Google Scholar
  225. Utomo, W. H., and A. R. Dexter. 1982. Changes in soil aggregate water stability induced by wetting and drying cycles in non-saturated soil. J. Soil Sci. 33:623–637.Google Scholar
  226. van Bavel, C. H. M., F. W. Schaller. 1950. Soil aggregation, organic matter and yields in a long-term experiment as affected by crop management. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 15:399–404.Google Scholar
  227. van der Linden, A. M. A., J. A. van Veen, and M. J. Frissel. 1987. Modelling soil organic matter levels after long-term applications of crop residues, and farmyard and green manures. Plant Soil 101:21–28.Google Scholar
  228. van Ouwerkerk, C. 1968. Two model experiments on the durability of subsoil compaction. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 16:204–210.Google Scholar
  229. Voorhees, W. B. 1983. Relative effectiveness of tillage and natural forces in alleviating wheel-induced soil compaction. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 47:129–133.Google Scholar
  230. Voorhees, W. B., M. J. Lindstrom. 1984. Long-term effects of tillage method on soil tilth independent of wheel traffic compaction. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 48:152–156.Google Scholar
  231. Voorhees, W. B., C. G. Senst, W. W. Nelson. 1978. Compaction and soil structure modification by wheel traffic in the northern corn belt. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 42:344–349.Google Scholar
  232. Warren, S. D. 1987. Soil hydrologic response to intensive rotation grazing: a state of knowledge, pp. 488–501. In: Y. S. Fok (ed.), Proc. Int. Conf. on Infiltration Development and Application. Water Resources Res. Center, Univ. of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  233. Warren, S. D., T. L. Thurow, W. H. Blackburn, N. E. Garza. 1986. The influence of livestock trampling under intensive rotation grazing on soil hydrologic characteristics. J. Range Mgt. 39:491–495.Google Scholar
  234. Willis, W. 1955. Freezing and thawing, and wetting and drying in soils treated with organic chemicals. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 19:263–267.Google Scholar
  235. Yamada, S. 1955. Investigation on freezing and thawing actions of volcanogenous soils and their influences upon soils and crops, pt. 1. Soil and Plant Food 1:84–87.Google Scholar
  236. Yeoh, N. S., J. M. Oades. 1981. Properties of clays and soils after acid treatment, II: Urrbrae fine sandy loam. Aust. J. Soil Res. 19:159–166.Google Scholar
  237. Zachman, J. E., D. R. Linden, C. E. Clapp. 1987. Macroporous infiltration and redistribution as affected by earthworms, tillage and residue. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:1580–1586.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. D. Kay
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Land Resource ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations