Rarely are smart managers surprised. Why? Because the sources of uncertainty in the organizational environment are recognized ahead of time and are monitored continually. Surveillance is a fundamental requirement which successful managers do almost by instinct. Casual, even socially motivated behaviors are combined with more consciously directed efforts so as to maintain an acute awareness of what is going on around them. Thus, when asked to reflect on their intelligence-gathering tactics, these managers revealed both formalized approaches and a keen awareness of grapevines and other informant structures.
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