Psychologists have accounted for human behavior in many ways since the late 19th century. At first, behavior was seen as driven by instincts, then later by unconscious drives, and still later by needs and motives. Most recently, behavior has been explained by higher order mental processes involving intellectual activity, such as cognitions and expectations. What all of these explanations have in common is that they are based on social forces within the individual that cannot be seen or touched. These ghosts have such names as dissonance, id, and creativity, to name but a few. Each lives for a brief moment and then is forgotten as new explanations arise. Despite their being short-lived, psychology needs its ghosts, perhaps even more than the church needs the notion of a soul. How else are we to capture the richness and complexity of human beings? Surely not by behavior alone.
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