Pesticide Personal Protective Clothing

  • D. H. Branson
  • M. Sweeney
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 122)

Abstract

In 1985, U.S. farmers applied 355,000 metric tons of pesticides to agricultural land, almost tripling the amount of pesticides used in the U.S. in 1965 (Postel 1987). The increment in the use of herbicides for weed control was contributing significantly to this increase. In fact, in recent years, sales of herbicides in the U.S. have steadily increased whereas sales of insecticide have declined considerably (Postel 1987). Pesticide use has also risen substantially in developing countries. Its increased use means increased potential exposure for applicators, mixer/loaders, and field workers involved with hand harvesting, scouting, thinning and other operations.

Keywords

Permeability Lymphoma Smoke Vinyl Polypropylene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Annual Book of ASTM Standards (1989) Vol 15.07, Sec 15. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 688–692.Google Scholar
  2. Anastasakis MT, Leonas KK, Dimit C, Brothers J, DeJonge JO (1988) Effect of temperature and humidity on laboratory pesticide penetration studies. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 692–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen I, Fishbein M (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  4. Barker RL, Colletta GC (1986) Performance of protective clothing, STP 900, Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 000–000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Branson DH, Ayers G, Henry M (1986) Effectiveness of selected work fabrics as barriers to pesticide penetration. In: Barker RL, Colletta GC (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing, STP 900, Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, 469 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Branson DH, DeJonge JO, Munson D (1986) Thermal responses associated with prototype pesticide protective clothing. Test Res J 56 (1): 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Branson DH, Rajadhyaksha S (1988) Distribution of malathion on Gore-Tex fabric before and after sunlight exposure and laundering as determined by electron microscopy. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium STP 989, Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 651–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bull D (1982) A growing problem: pesticides and the third world poor Oxfam, Oxford, England, pp 37–38.Google Scholar
  9. Cloud RM, Boethel DJ, Buco SM (1988) Protective clothing for crop consultants: field studies in louisiana. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cloud RM, Hranitzky MS, Day MO, Keith NK (1983) Louisiana Agric 26 (4): 20–21.Google Scholar
  11. Cowan SL, Tilley RC, Wiczynski ME (1988) Comfort factors of protective clothing: mechanical and transport properties, subjective evaluation of comfort. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis JE (1980) Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Personal Monitoring. Residue Rev 75: 34–39.Google Scholar
  13. Davis JE, Freed VH, Enos HF, Duncan RC, Barquet A, Morgade C, Peters LJ, Danausdas JX (1982) Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers. J Occup Med 24 (6): 464–468.Google Scholar
  14. DeJonge JO, Ayers G, Branson DH (1985) pesticide deposition patterns of garments during air blast field spraying. Home Ec Res J 14(2): 262–268.Google Scholar
  15. DeJonge JO, Vredevoogd J, Henry MS (1983–84) Attitudes, practices, and preferences of pesticide users toward protective apparel. Cloth Text Res J 2: 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Easter L (1982) Removal of residues from fabrics by laundering. Text Chem Color 15: 29–33.Google Scholar
  17. Ehntholt DJ, Bodek I, Valentine JR, Schwope AD, Royer MD, Frank U, Nielsen AP (1989) The effects of solvent type and concentration on the permeation of pesticide formulations through chemical protective glove materials. In: perkins JL, Stull JO (eds) Chemical Protective Clothing Performance in Chemical Emergency Response, STP 1037. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 146–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Federal Register (1974) 39:16888–16891.Google Scholar
  19. Federal Register (1988) 40 CFR, part 170.1–2:262.Google Scholar
  20. Fenske RA (1988) Use of fluorescent tracers and video imaging to evaluate chemical protective clothing during pesticide applications. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 630–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Finley EL, Rogillio JRB (1969) DDT and methyl parathion residues found in cotton and cotton-polyester fabrics worn in cotton fields. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 4 (6): 343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fleeker JR, Nelson CN, Braaten AW, Fleeker JB (1988) Quantitation of pesticides on apparel fabrics. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 745–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fraser AJ, Keeble BV (1988) Factors influencing design of protective clothing for pesticide application. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 565–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freed VH, Davies JE, Peters LJ, Parveen F (1980) Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: repellency and penetrability of treated textiles to pesticide sprays. Residue Rev 75: 159–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gold RE, Leavitt JRC, Holsclaw T, Tupy D (1982) Exposure of urban applicators to carbaryl. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 63 - 67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grieshop JI (1988) Protective clothing and equipment beliefs and behavior of pesticide workers in ecuador. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 000–000.Google Scholar
  27. Hackathorn DR, Eberhard DC (1985) Data base proposal for use in predicting mixer/loader/applicator exposure. In: Am Chem Soc Symposium 273, Dermal Exposure Related to Pesticide Use. Am Chem Soc, Washington DC, pp 341–356.Google Scholar
  28. Hassenboehler CB, Nigg HN, DeJonge JO (1988) Comparison of a thermal test battery analysis and field assessments of thermal comfort of protective apparel for pesticide application. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing. Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 640–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hawkes GR, Pilisak M, Stiles MC, Aeredolo C (1984) The medfly crisis: citizens’ responses to eradication risks. California Agric 38 (1&2): 14–16.Google Scholar
  30. Hoar SK, Blair A, Holmes FF, Boysen CD, Robel R, Fraumeni JF (1986) Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. J Am Med Assoc 256: 1141–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hobbs NE, Oakland BG, Hurwitz (1986) Use of methylene bule dye to predict fabric penetration by malathion. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing, Second Symposium STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 738–744Google Scholar
  32. Keeble VB, Dupont RR, Doucette WJ, Norton M (1988) Guthion penetration of clothing materials during mixing and spraying in orchards. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sagar R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 573–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keeble VB, Norton MJT, Drake CR (1987) Clothing and personal equipment used by fruit growers and workers when handling pesticides. Cloth Text Res J 5: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kim CJ, Kim JO (1988) Dispersion mechanism of a pesticide chemical in woven fabric structures. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sagar R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing, Second Symposium STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 738–744.Google Scholar
  35. Laughlin JM, Easley CB, Gold RE, Hill RM (1986) Fabric parameters and pesticide characteristics that impact on dermal exposure of applicators. In: Baker RL, Colletta GC (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing, Second Symposium STP 900. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 136–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laughlin JM, Gold RE (1988) Cleaning protective apparel to reduce pesticide exposure. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 101: 93–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Leavitt JRC, Gold RE, Holsclaw T, Tupy D (1982) Exposure of professional pesticide applicators to carbaryl. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leonas KK, DeJonge JO (1986) Effects of functional finish barriers on pesticide penetration. In: Barker RL, Colletta GC (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing, Second Symposium STP 900. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leonas KK, DeJonge JO, Duckette KE (1988) Development and validation of a laboratory spray system designed to contaminate fabrics with pesticide solutions. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, pp 660–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leonas KK, Easter EP, DeJonge JO (1989) Effect of fabric characteristics of pesticide penetration through selected apparel fabrics. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 43: 231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lillie TH (1978) Evaluation of cotton and polyester coveralls for protection from pesticides. USAF OEHL Tech Report No. 80-35.Google Scholar
  42. Lillie TH, Livingston JM, Hamilton MA (1981) Recommendations for selecting and decontaminating pesticide applicator clothing. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27: 716–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Litchfield MH (1988) A review of the requirements for protective clothing for agricultural workers in hot climates. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 796–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lunchick C, Nielsen AP, Reinert JC (1988) Engineering controls and protective clothing in the reduction of pesticide exposure to tractor drivers. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 605–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maibach HI, Feldmann FJ, Milby TH, Serat WF (1971) Regional variation in percutaneous penetration in man. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 23: 208–211.Google Scholar
  46. Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielson AP (1988) Performance of protective clothing: second symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, 897 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McDonald (1987) Chemicals and your health: what’s the risk. Farm J 111 (2): 8–11.Google Scholar
  48. Nelson C, Rucker MD, Branson DH, Olson W, Slocum A, Stone J (1988) Farm families’ attitudes and practices regarding pesticide application and protective clothing: a five-state comparison. Part 2: Launderer data. Cloth Text Res J 7 (1): 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nigg HN, Stamper HH, Queen RM (1986) Dicofol exposure to florida citrus applicators: effects of protective clothing. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 15: 121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Obendorf SK, Klemash NA (1982) Electron microscopical analysis of oily soil penetration and polyester/cotton fabrics. Text Res J 52 (7): 434–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Obendorf SK, Solbrid CM (1986) Distribution of malathion and methyl parathion on cotton/polyester unfinished and durable-press fabrics before and after launtering as determined by electron microscopy. In: Barker RL, Colletta GC (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing, Second Symposium STP 900. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Oleson BW, Dukes-Dobos FN (1988) International standards for assessing the effect of clothing on heat tolerance and comfort. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 796–801.Google Scholar
  53. O’Neill DH, Whyte RT (1985) The danger of wearing impermeable clothing while spraying. J Soc Occup Med 35: 10–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Orlando J, Branson D, Ayres G, Leavitt R (1981) The penetration of formulated guthion spray through selected fabrics. J Environ Sci Hlth B16 (5): 617–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Perkins HM, Crown EM, Rigkis KB, Eggertson B (1988) Attitudes and behaviors of farmers towards disposable protective clothing: an experimental field study. In: Reagan BM, Johnson D, Dusaj S (eds) Symposium Proceedings: First International Symposium on the Impact of Pesticides, Industrial and Consumer Chemicals on the Near Environment. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, pp 234–242.Google Scholar
  56. Perkins JL, Stull JO (1989) Chemical protective clothing performance in chemical emergency response, STP 1037. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, 282 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Postel S (1987) Defusing the toxics threat: controlling pesticide and industrial waste. Worldwatch Paper 79: 1–69.Google Scholar
  58. Putnam AR, Willis MD, Binming LK, Boldt PF (1983) Exposure of pesticide applicators to Nitrofen: influences of formulation, handling systems, and protective garments. J Agric Food Chem 31: 645–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raheel M (1988) Dermal exposure to pesticides, the barrier effectiveness of protective clothing. J Environ Hlth 51: 82–84.Google Scholar
  60. Raheel M (1988) Pesticide penetration in fabrics: fiber chemistry, surface energy, and fabric porosity. In: Reagan BM, Johnson D, Dusaj S (eds) Symposium Proceedings: First International Symposium on the Impact of Pesticides, Industrial and Consumer Chemicals on the Near Environment, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, pp 127–136.Google Scholar
  61. Ramaswamy G, Boyd CR (1989) Protective clothing usage of cotton growers in Mississippi. Am Home Ec Assn Abst: 149.Google Scholar
  62. Ramaswamy G, Boyd CR (1989) A simple, highly sensitive fluorometric assay to test penetration of pesticides in a spray chamber. Am Chem Soc Proceedings: 6.Google Scholar
  63. Reagan BM, Johnson D, Dusaj S (1988) Symposium proceedings: first international symposium on the impact of pesticides, industrial and consumer chemicals on the near environment, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, pp 000–000.Google Scholar
  64. Reinert JC, Severn DJ (1985) Dermal exposure related to pesticide use. In: Honeycutt RC, Zweig G, Ragdale NC (eds) Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 357–368.Google Scholar
  65. Rucker MD, Branson DH, Nelson C, Olson W, Slocum A, Stone J (1988) Farm families’ attitudes and practices regarding pesticide application and protective clothing: a five-state comparison. Cloth Text Res J 6 (4): 37–46.Google Scholar
  66. Savage EP, Keefe TJ, Mounce LM, Heaton RK, Lewis JA, Burcar PJ (1988) Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Arch Environ Hlth 43 (1): 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Serat WF, Van Loon AJ (1978) Some factors influencing the design of fabrics for protective garments for pesticide field workers. Unpublished Report: Community Pesticide Studies, State Dept. of Health, Berkeley, CA, pp 000–000.Google Scholar
  68. Serat WF, Van Loon AJ, Serat WH (1982) Loss of pesticides from patches used in the field as pesticide collectors. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 227–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shern LC, Slocum AC (1988) Perceptions of risk and protective clothing actions of Michigan farm families. In: Reagan BM, Johnson D, Dusaj S (1988) Symposium Proceedings: First International Symposium on the Impact of Pesticides, Industrial and Consumer Chemicals on the Near Environment. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, pp 257–266.Google Scholar
  70. Schwope AD (1983) ASTM stand news 11 (7): 19–23.Google Scholar
  71. Slocum AC, Nolan RJ, Shern LC, Gay SL, Turgeon AJ (1988) Development and testing of protective clothing for Lawn-Care specialists. In: Mansdorf SZ, Sager R, Nielsen AP (eds) Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, STP 989. Am Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 557–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Staiff DC, Davis JE, Stevens ER (1982) Evaluation of various clothing materials for protection and workers acceptability during application of pesticides. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 391–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stone J, Branson D, Nelson C, Olson W, Rucker M, Slocum A (1989) Use and care of clothing worn for pesticide application: a five-state survey report. NCR Res Pub 318: 1–35.Google Scholar
  74. Stone JF, Eichner ML, Kim C, Koehler K (1988) Relationships between clothing and pesticide poisoning… symptoms among iowa farmers. J Environ Hlth 50 (4): 210–215.Google Scholar
  75. Urbain CD (1988) Chemical handling in the comfort zone. Farm J 112 (2): 12–15.Google Scholar
  76. Vlek C, Stallen PJ (1981) Judging risks and benefits in the small and in the large. Organization Behavior and Human Performance 28: 235–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wadsworth LC, Easter EP, Lin YQ (1988) A study of nonwoven fabrics in providing repellency and barrier performance. In: Reagan BM, Johnson D, Dusaj S (1988) Symposium Proceedings: First International Symposium on the Impact of Pesticides, Industrial and Consumer Chemicals on the Near Environment, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, pp 000–000.Google Scholar
  78. Wolfe HR (1973, April) Workers should be protected from pesticide exposure. Weeds, Trees, & Turf: pp 12, 36, 37, 52, 53.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. H. Branson
    • 1
  • M. Sweeney
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Design, Housing and MerchandisingOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Home EconomicsCentral Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA

Personalised recommendations