Advertisement

Bioavailability to Plants of Sludge-Borne Toxic Organics

  • G. A. O’Connor
  • R. L. Chaney
  • J. A. Ryan
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 121)

Abstract

Land application is an efficient and cost-effective method of sludge disposal that also recycles essential nutrients to the soil. Sludge additions can also improve the physical and chemical properties of soil, albeit at high initial or cumulative application rates. Thus, land application of sludge in the agricultural sector is responsive to the policy of U.S. EPA (40 CFR 503, 1989) of promoting beneficial use of sewage sludge. Concern about the environmental fate of toxic organic (TOs) that can occur in sludges, however, threatens routine use of the practice.

Keywords

Sewage Sludge Plant Uptake Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Bioconcentration Factor Land Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aranda J, O’Connor GA, Eiceman GA (1989) Effects of sewage sludge on DEHP uptake by plants. J Environ Qual 18: 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arthur MF, Frea JI (1989) 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin: Aspects of its important properties and its potential biodegradation in soils. J Environ Qual 18: 1–11.Google Scholar
  3. Babish JG, Stowesand GS, Furr AK, Parkison TP, Bache CA, Gutenmann WH, Wszolek PC, Lisk DJ (1979) Elemental and polychlorinated biphenyl content of tissues and intestinal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of guinea pigs fed cabbage grown municipal sewage sludge. J Agric Food Chem 27: 399–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baxter JC, Aguilar M, Brown K (1983a) Heavy metals and persistent organics at a sewage sludge disposal site. J Environ Qual 12: 311–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bellin CA, O’Connor GA (1990) Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol. J Environ Qual 19: 598–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellin CA, O’Connor GA, Jin Y (1990) Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol in slude—amended soils. J Environ Qual 19: 603–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berlin JW, Barz W, Harms H, Harder K (1971) Degradation of phenolic compounds in cell culture. FEBS Letters 16: 141–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bitton G, Damron BL, Edds GT, Davidson JM (1980) Sludge—health risks of land application. Ann Arbor Sci Publ, Ann Arbor, MI, 367 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Boersma L, Lindstrom FT, McFarlane C, McCoy EL (1988) Model of coupled transport of water and solute in plants. Agric Exp Sta Special Rept 818, Oregon State Univ, Corvalls, OR, 109 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Borneff E, Selenka H, Knute H, Maximos A (1968) Exprimental studies on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plants. Environ Res 2: 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bossert ID, Bartha R (1986) Structure—biodegradability relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 37: 490–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brewer WS, Draper AC, Wey SS (1980) The detection of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine in municipal sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils. Environ Pollut 81: 37–43.Google Scholar
  13. Brunner PH, Capri S, Marcomini A, Giger W (1988) Occurrence and behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, nonylphenol, nonylphenol mono-and nonylphenol diethoxylates in sewage sludge treatment. Water Res 12: 1465–1472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burns and Roe Industrial Services Corporation (1982) Fate of priority pollutants in publically owned treatment works. Effluent Guidelines Division, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA-440/1–82/303.Google Scholar
  15. Casterline JL, Barnett NM, Ku Y (1985) Uptake, translocation, and transformation of pentachlorophenol in soybean and spinach plants. Environ Res 37: 101–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaney RL (1985) Potential effects of sludge-borne heavy metals and toxic organics on soils, plants, and animals, and related regulatory guidelines. In: Final Report of the Workshop on the International Transportation, Utilization or Disposal of Sewage Sludge Including Recommendations. PNSP/85–01. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, pp 1–56.Google Scholar
  17. Chou SF, Jacobs LW, Penner F, Tiedje JM (1978) Absence of plant uptake and translocation of polybrominated biphenyls ( PBBs ). Environ Hlth Persp 23: 9–12.Google Scholar
  18. Connor MS (1984) Monitoring sludge-amended agricultural soils. Biocycle, Jan/Feb, pp 47–51.Google Scholar
  19. Crathorne B, Donaldson K, James HA, Rogers HR (1989) The determination of organic contaminants in UK sewage sludges. In: Quagheberu D, Temmerman I, Angeletti G (eds) Organic Contaminants in Waste Water, Sludge, and Sediment: Occurrence, Fate and Disposal. Elsevier Applied Sci, London, pp 45–65.Google Scholar
  20. Crosby DG (1980) Environmental chemistry of pentachlorophenol: a special report on pentachlorophenol in the environment. In: Commission on Pesticide Chemistry, Dept of Environmental Toxicology, Univ Calif, Davis, CA, pp 1052–1080.Google Scholar
  21. Dacre JC (1980) Potential health hazards of toxic organic residues in sludge. In: Bitton G, Damron BL, Edds GT, Davidson JM (eds) Sludge-Health Risks of Land Application. Ann Arbor Sci, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 85–102.Google Scholar
  22. Davis RD, Howell K, Oake RJ, Wilcox P (1984) Significance of organic contaminants in sewage sludges used on agricultural land. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Contamination. CEP Consultants Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp 73–79.Google Scholar
  23. Davis TS, Pyle JL, Skillings JH, Danielson ND (1981) Uptake of polychlorobiphenyls present in trace amount in dried municipal sewage sludge through an old field ecosystem. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27: 689–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dean RB, Suess MJ (1985) The risk to health of chemicals in sewage sludge applied to land. Waste Mgt Res 3: 251–278.Google Scholar
  25. Dean-Raymond D, Alexander M (1976) Plant uptake and leaching of dimethylnitrosamine. Nature 262: 394–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Demirjian YA, Westman TR, Joshi AM, Rop DJ, Buhl RV, Clark WR (1984) Land treatment of contaminated sludge with wastewater irrigation. J Water Pollut Cont Fed 56: 377–377.Google Scholar
  27. Dressel J (1976a) Relationship between nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines in plants and soil. Qual Plant Foods Hum Nutr 25: 381–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dressel J (1976b) Dependence of N-containing constituents which influence plant quality on the intensity of fertilization. Landwirtsch. Forsch Sondern 33: 326–334.Google Scholar
  29. Edwards CA (1973) Environmental pollution by pesticides. Plenum Press, London.Google Scholar
  30. Edwards NT (1983) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the terrestrial environment–a review. J Environ Qual 12: 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Edwards NT (1986) Uptake, translocation and metabolism of anthracene in bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Environ Toxicol Chem 5: 659–665.Google Scholar
  32. Eicemann GA, Urquhart NS, O’Connor GA (1991) Logistic and economic principles in GC/MS use for plant uptake investigations. J Environ Qual (in prep).Google Scholar
  33. Ellwardt P (1977) Variation in content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and plants by using municipal waste composts in agriculture. In: Proc Symp on Soil Organic Matter Studies. Braunschweig. Germany, (1976), IAEA-SM-211/31. Int Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 291–297.Google Scholar
  34. Facchetti S, Balasso C (1986) Studies on the absorption of TCDD by some plant species. Chemosphere 15: 1387–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fairbanks BC, O’Connor GA, Smith SE (1985) Fate of di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate in three sludge-amended New Mexico soils. J Environ Qual 14: 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fairbanks BC, O’Connor GA, Smith SE (1987) Mineralization and volatilization of polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge-amended soils. J Environ Qual 16: 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Feliciano DV (1982) Sludge on land but where are we going? J Water Pollut Cont Fed 9: 1259–1266.Google Scholar
  38. Fishbein L (1984) An overview of environmental and toxicological aspects of aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Benzene. Sci Total Environ 40: 189–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fries GF, Marrow GD (1981) Chlorobiphenyl movement from soil to soybean plants. J Agric Food Chem 29: 757–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Furr AK, Lawrence AW, Tong SSC, Grandolfo MC, Hofstader RA, Bache CA, Gutenmann WH, Lisk DJ (1976) Multielement and chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis of municipal sewage sludges of American cities. Environ Sci Technol 10: 683–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Giger W, Ahel M, Koch M, Laubscher HU, Schaffner C, Schneider J (1978) Behavior of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants and of nitriloacetate in sewage treatment. Water Sci Technol 19: 449–460.Google Scholar
  42. Giger W, Brunner WP, Schaffner C (1984) 4-Nonylphenol in sewage sludge: accumulation of toxic metabolites from nonionic surfactants. Science 225: 623–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gould RF (1966) Organic pesticides in the environment. Adv Chem Series No 60, Amer Chem Soc, Washington, DC, 300 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Graham PR (1973) Phthalate ester plasticizer how and why they are used. Environ Hlth Persp 3: 13–15.Google Scholar
  45. Green S, Alexander M, Leggett D (1981) Formation of N-nitrosodimethyamine during treatment of municipal wastewater by simulated land application. J Environ Qual 10: 416–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harms H, Sauerbeck DR (1983) Toxic organic compounds in town waste materials: their origin, concentration and turnover in waste composts, soils and plants. In: Davis RD, Hucker G, L’Hermite P (eds) Environmental Effects of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge. Proc of a workshop Held at Stevenage, UK, 25–26 May 1982. D. Reidel Publ Co, D. Reidel Publ Co, pp 38–51.Google Scholar
  47. Helling CS, Isensee AR, Woolson EA, Ensor PDJ, Jones GE, Plimmer Jr, Kearney PC (1973) Chlorodioxins in pesticides, soils, and plants. J Environ Qual 2: 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holt MS, Matthijs E, Waters J (1989) The concentrations and fate of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in sludge amended soils. Water Res 6: 749–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobs LW, Chou SF, Tiedje JM (1976) Fate of polybrominated biphenyl (PBBs) in soils: persistence and plant uptake, J Agric Food Chem 24: 1198–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jacobs LW, O’Connor GA, Overcash MR, Zabik MJ, Rygiewicz P (1987) Effects of trace organics in sewage sludge on soil-plant systems and assessing their risk to humans. In: Page AL, Logan TG, Ryan JA (eds) Land Application of Sludge. Lewis Publ, Chelsea, MI, pp 101–143.Google Scholar
  51. Jin Y, O’Connor GA (1990) Behavior of toluene added to sludge-amended soils. J Environ Qual 19: 573–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones KC, Grimmer G, Jacob J, Johnston AE (1989) Changes in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content of wheat grain and pasture grassland over the last century from one site in the U.K. Sci Total Environ 78: 117–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kampe W (1989) Organic substances in soils and plants after intensive application of sewage sludge. In: Dirkzwager AH, Hermite PL (eds) Sewage Sludge Treatment and Use: New Developments, Technological Aspects, and Environmental Effects. Elsevier Applied Sci, London, pp 180–185.Google Scholar
  54. Kato K, Nakaoka T, Ikeda H (1981) Contamination of phthalic acid esters in vegetables. Chem Abstr 94: 60034k.Google Scholar
  55. Kearney PC, Amundson ME, Beynon KI, Drescher N, Marco GJ, Miyamoto J, Murphy JR, Oliver JE (1980a) Nitrosamines and pesticides. A special report on the occurrence of nitrosamines as terminal residues resulting from agricultural use of certain pesticides. Pure Appl Chem 52: 449–526.Google Scholar
  56. Kearney PC, Oliver JE, Kontson A, Fiddler W, Pensabene JW (1980b) Plant uptake of dinitrosaniline herbicide-related nitrosamines. J Agric Food Chem 28: 633–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kew GA, Schaum JL, White P, Evans TT (1989) Review of plant uptake of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from soil and potential influences of bioavailability. Chemosphere 18: 1313–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klepper LA (1979) Effects of certain herbicides and their combination on nitrate and reduction. Plant Phys 64: 273–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kloskowski R, Scheunert I, Klein W, Korte F (1981) Laboratory screening of distribution, conversion, and mineralization of chemicals in the soil—plant-system and, comparison to outdoor experimental data. Chemosphere 10: 1089–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lindsay DG (1983) Effects arising from the presence of persistent organic compounds in sludge. In: Davis RD, Hucker G, L’Hermite P (eds) Environmental effects of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge. Proc of a workshop held at Stevenage, UK, 25–26 May 1982. D Reidel Publ Co, Dordrecht, Holland, pp 19–26.Google Scholar
  61. Litz N, Doering HW, Thiele M, Blume HP (1987) The behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in different soils: a comparison between field and laboratory studies. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 14: 103–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marcomini A, Capel PD, Lichtensteiger TH, Brunner PH, Giger W (1989) Behavior of aromatic surfactants and PCBs in sludge-treated soil and landfills. J Environ Qual 18: 523–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McCrady JK, McFarlane C, Lindstrom FT (1987) The transport and affinity of substituted benzenes in soybean stems. J Exp Bot 38: 1875–1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McEvoy J, Giger W (1986) Determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sewage sludge by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Environ Sci Technol 20: 376–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McFarlane C, Wickliff C (1985) Excised barley root uptake of several “C labeled organic compounds. Environ Monit Assess 5: 385–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Miller TA, Rosenblatt DH, Dacre JC, Pearson JG, Kulkarni RK (1977) Problem definition studies on potential environmental pollutants. IV. Physical, chemical, toxicological properties of benzene, toluene, xylene; and para chlorophenyl methyl sulfide, sulfoxide, and sulfone. NTIS AD-A-040435.Google Scholar
  67. Moza PN, Schuenert I, Klein W, Korte F (1979) Long-term uptake of lower chlorinated biphenyls and their conversion products by spruce trees (Pices abies) from soil treated with sewage sludge. Chemosphere 6: 373–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mumma RO, Rashid KA, Raupack DC, Shane BS, Scarlet-Kranz SM, Bache CA, Gutenmann WH, Lisk DL (1988) Mutagens, toxicants, and other constituents in small city sludges in New York state. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 17: 657–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nash RG (1974) Plant uptake of insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants from soils. In: Guenzi WG (ed) Pesticides in Soils and Water. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI, pp 257–313.Google Scholar
  70. Nash RG, Beall ML Jr, Harris WG (1977) Toxaphene and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chorophenyl) ethane ( DDT) losses from cotton in an agroecosystem chamber. J Agric Food Chem 25: 336–341.Google Scholar
  71. Natural Resource Defense Council (NRDC) vs Train (1976) 8 ERC 2120, 2122–2129 and Appendix A, 8 ERC 2129–2130.Google Scholar
  72. Naylor LM, Loehr RC (1982a) Priority pollutants in municipal sewage sludge. Part i. Biocycle, July/August, pp 18–27.Google Scholar
  73. Naylor LM, Loehr RC (1982b) Priority pollutants in municipal sewage sludge. Part II. Biocycle, November/December, pp 37–42.Google Scholar
  74. O’Connor GA (1989) Degradation, crop uptake, and risk of micropollutants in sewage sludge. Proc Sewage Sludge Conf: Qual Aspects and Risk in Connection with Land Application. Swedish Water and Wastewater Assoc (11–12 April, 1989 ).Google Scholar
  75. O’Connor GA, Chaney RL, Ryan JA, Baker D, Barbarick K, Chang A, Corey R, Dowdy R, Fitzgerald P, Hinesly T (1989) Land application agriculture. In: Page AL, Logan TU (eds) Peer Review Standards for the Disposal of Sewage Sludge (U.S. EPA Prop Rule 40 CFR, Parts 257 and 503 ). Spec Publ CSRS, USDA, Washington, DC, pp 27–28.Google Scholar
  76. O’Connor GA, Eiceman GA, Bellin CA, Ryan JA (1990a) Sludge organics bioavailability. In: Muralidhara HS (ed) Solid/Liquid Separation: Waste Management and Productivity Enhancement ( 1989 ) International Symposium. Battelle Press, Ohio, OH, pp 407–416.Google Scholar
  77. O’Connor GA, Kiehl D, Eiceman GA, Ryan JA (1990b) Plant uptake of sluge-borne PCBs. J Environ Qual 19: 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Connor GA, Lujan JR, Jin Y (1990c) Adsorption, degradation, and plant availability of 2,4-dinitrophenol in sludge-amended calcareous soils. J Environ Qual 19: 587–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Overcash MR, Weber JR, Tucker WP (1986) Toxic and priority organics in municipal sludge land treatment systems. EPA/600/2–86/010.Google Scholar
  80. Page AL, Logan TG, Ryan JA (1987) Land application of sludge. Lewis Publ, Chelsea, MI, 168 pp.Google Scholar
  81. Page AL, Gleason TL III, Smith JE Jr, Iskandar IK, Sommers LE (1983) Proceedings of 1983 workshop on utilization of municipal wastewater and sludge on land. Univ Calif, Riverside, CA, 480 pp.Google Scholar
  82. Parker LV, Jenkins TF (1986) Removal of trace-level organics by slow-rate land treatment. Water Res 11: 1417–1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rogers HR (1987) Occurrence and fate of synthetic organic compounds in sewage and sewage sludge—a review. Techn Rept PRD 1539-M. WRC Environment, Medmenham, Lab, Medmenham, U.K., 83 pp.Google Scholar
  84. Rogers HR, Campbell JA, Crathorne B, Dobbs AJ (1989) The occurrence of chlorobenzenes and permethrins in twelve U.K. sewage sludges. Water Res 23: 913–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ryan JA, Bell RM, Davidson JM, O’Connor GA (1988) Plant uptake of non-ionic organic chemicals from soil. Chemosphere 17: 2299–2323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sacchi GA, Vigano P, Fortunati G, Cocucii SM (1986) Accumulation of 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo -p-dioxin from soil and nutrient solution by bean and maize plants. Experienta 42: 586–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sawhney BL (1988) Chemistry and properties of PCBs in relation to environmental effects. In: Waid JS (ed) PCBs and the environment. Vol. 1, CRC, Raton, FL, pp 47–63.Google Scholar
  88. Schafer W, Sandermann H Jr (1988) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Tetrachlorocatechol as a primary metabolite. J Agric Food Chem 36: 370–377.Google Scholar
  89. Scheel D, Schafer W, Sandermann H Jr (1984) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol in cell suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max L) and wheat (Tritcum aestirum L). General results and isolation of lignin metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 32: 1237–1241.Google Scholar
  90. Schmitzer JL, Scheunert I, Korte F (1988) Fate of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 14C in laboratory and outdoor and soil—plant systems. J Agric Food Chem 36: 210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shea PJ, Weber JB, Overcash MR (1983) Biological activities of 2,4-dinitrophenols in plant—soil systems. Residue Rev 87: 2–41.Google Scholar
  92. Singh D (1983) The effect of land application of sludge on concentration of certain sludge associated toxic chemicals in Michigan soils and crops. Report, March 1983, Toxic Substances Div, Mich Dept of Agric, Lansing, MI.Google Scholar
  93. Strek HJ, Weber JB (1980) Absorption and translocation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Proc South Weed Sci Soc 33: 226–232.Google Scholar
  94. Strek HJ, Weber JB, Shea PJ, Mrozek E Jr, Overcash MR (1981) Reduction of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity and uptake of carbon-14 activity by plants through the use of activated carbon. J Agric Food 29: 288–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Suzuki M, Aizawa N, Okano G, Takahashi T (1977) Translocation of polychlorobiphenyls in soil into plants: study by a method of culture of soybean sprouts. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 5: 343–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Topp E, Schuenert I, Korte F (1989) Kinetics of the uptake of 14C-labeled chlorinated benzenes from soil by plants. Exotoxicol Environ Saf 17: 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Travis CC, Hattener-Frey HA (1988) Uptake of organics by aerial plant parts: a call for research. Chemosphere 17: 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1979) Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. EPA 40 CFR, Part 257. Fed Reg 44: 53438–53468.Google Scholar
  99. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1984) National revised primary drinking water regulations; volatile synthetic organic chemicals; proposed rules. EPA 40, CFR 141, Fed Reg 49: 24329–24355.Google Scholar
  100. U.S. Environmental Protection Aency (1989) Standards for the disposal of sewage sludge: proposed rule. EPA 40 CFR, Parts 257 and 503, Fed Reg 54: 5746–5902.Google Scholar
  101. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1989) Development of risk assessment methodology for land application and distribution and marketing of municipal sludge. EPA/600/6–89/001.Google Scholar
  102. Walton BT, Edwards NT (1986) Accumulation of organic waste constituents in terrestrial biota. In: Loehr RC, Malina JF Jr (eds) Land Treatment a Hazardous Waste Management Alternative. Water Resources Symp # 13. Center for Research in Water Resources, Austin, TX, pp 73–86.Google Scholar
  103. Wang DT, Meresz O (1981) Occurrence and potential uptake of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of highway traffic origin by proximally grown food crops (Abstract). Sixth Int Symp on PAH Battelle Columbia Lab, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  104. Ward TE, Larson RJ (1989) Biodegradation kinetics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in sludge-amended agricultural soils. Ecotoxicol. Environ Saf 17: 119–130.Google Scholar
  105. Webber MD, Monteith HD, Corneau DGM (1983) Assessment of heavy metals and PCBs at sludge application sites. J Water Pollut Cont Fed 55: 187–195.Google Scholar
  106. Webber MD, Lesage S (1989) Organic contaminants in Canadian municipal sludges. Waste Mgt and Res 7: 63–82.Google Scholar
  107. Webber MD, Goodin JD (1989) Persistence of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) in sludge treated soils. In: Alternative Uses for Sewage Sludge—an International Workshop Organized by the Water Res Ctr and Co-sponsored by the European Commission, Univ York, 5–7 September, 1989. (Proc in press).Google Scholar
  108. Wiemer K (1987) Genzwerte fur organische substanzen fehlen. Umwelt 5: 241–247.Google Scholar
  109. Wild SR, Jones KC (1989) The effect of sludge treatment on the organic contaminant content of sewage sludges. Chemosphere 19: 1765–1777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wild SR, Waterhouse KS, McGrath SP, Jones KC (1990) Organic contaminants in an agricultural soil with a known history of sewage sludge amendments: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 24: 1706–1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Witte H, Langenohl T, Offenbacher G (1988) Investigation of the entry of organic pollutants into soils and plants through the use of sewage sludge in agriculture. Part A. Organic pollutant load in sewage sludge. Part B. Impact of the application of sewage sludge on organic matter contents in soils and plants. Korrespondenz Abwasser 13: 118–136.Google Scholar
  112. Yoneyama T (1981) Detection of N-nitrosodimethylamine in soils amended with sludges. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 27: 249–253.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. O’Connor
    • 1
  • R. L. Chaney
    • 2
  • J. A. Ryan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and HorticultureNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA
  2. 2.Soil-Microbial SystemsUSDA-ARSBeltsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Risk Reduction Engineering LaboratoryUS-EPACincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations