Molecular Characterization and Distribution of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

  • Napoleone Ferrara
  • David W. Leung
  • Heidi S. Phillips
Part of the Neuroendocrine Perspectives book series (NEUROENDOCRINE, volume 9)


The cardiovascular system is the first organ system to develop and reach a functional state in an embryo. This precocity reflects the fundamental role that blood circulation plays in the delivery of nutrients and the disposal of catabolic products in a multicellular organism. Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, begins in the extraembryonic mesoderm of the yolk sac, the connecting stalk and the chorion as early as day 13 in the human (1). Nests of initially isolated endothelial cell cords develop a lumen. Primitive embryonic vessels form by confluence of lumina of separate cords about 2 d later (2,3). Further angiogenesis requires enzymatic degradation of the basement membrane of a local venule (4), endothelial cell Chemotaxis (5) and proliferation (6). Angiogenesis also is required in postnatal life for a wide variety of fundamental physiological processes such as somatic growth, wound healing, tissue and organ regeneration, cyclical growth of the corpus luteum and endometrium. Conversely, uncontrolled angiogenesis is now recognized as an important pathogenic component of a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, retinopathies, psoriasis and retrolental fibroplasia (7–9). Also, a major factor that determines potential for rapid growth and propensity to metastasize in tumors is the ability of tumor cells to induce a neovascular response (10). This allows the tumor to establish contact with the vascular bed of the host and to be nourished.


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Corpus Luteum Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor mRNA 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Napoleone Ferrara
  • David W. Leung
  • Heidi S. Phillips

There are no affiliations available

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