Children’s Trustworthiness: Judgments by Teachers, Parents, and Peers

  • John M. Wilson
  • James L. Carroll

Abstract

In developmental research and in clinical practice, lying has been identified consistently as an important indicator of current and future problems in social adjustment. It has been difficult, however, to define consistently what a lie is or, because successful lying is by definition a clandestine behavior, to collect reliable and valid data.

Keywords

Glean Koral 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T.M. (1966). The classification of children’s psychiatric symptoms: A factor analytic study. Psychological Monographs, 80(7, Whole No. 615).Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T.M., & Edelbrock, C.S. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46(1, Serial No. 188).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Asher, S.R., & Hymel, S. (1981). Children’s social competence in peer relations: Sociometric and behavioral assessment. In J.D. Wine, & M.D. Smye (Eds.), Social competence (pp. 125–157). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bard, J. A. (1980). Rational emotive therapy in practice. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  6. Behar, L., & Stringfleld, S. (1974). A behavior rating scale for the preschool child. Developmental Psychology, 10, 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackham, G.J., & Silberman, A. (1980). Modification of child and adolescent behavior (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  8. Bok, S. (1978). Lying: Moral choice in public and private life. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  9. Burt, C. (1925). The young delinquent. New York: D. Appleton.Google Scholar
  10. Carlson, CL., Lahey, B.B., & Neeper, R. (1984). Peer assessment of the social behavior of accepted, rejected, and neglected children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 187–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conners, CK. (1969). A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 884–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Conners, CK. (1970). Symptom Patterns in hyperkinetic, neurotic, and normal children. Child Development, 41, 667–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edelbrock, C, & Loeber, R. (1985). Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence: Developmental patterns and progressions. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  14. Freud, A. (1965). Normality and pathology in childhood. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gesten, E.L. (1976). A health resources inventory: The development of a measure of the personal and social competence of primary grade children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 775–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goyette, C.H., Conners, CK., & Ulrich, R.F. (1978). Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gresham, F.M. (1986). Conceptual issues in the assessment of social competence in children. In P.S. Strain, M.J. Guralnick, & H.M. Walker (Eds.), Children’s social behavior: Development, assessment, and modification (pp. 143–179). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Psychopathological disorders in childhood: Theoretical considerations and a proposed classification. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  19. Healy, W. (1917). The individual delinquent. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  20. Herbert, G.W. (1974). Teacher’s ratings of classroom behaviour: Factorial structure. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 44, 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jensen, L.C., & Hughston, K.M. (1979). Responsibility and morality. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kim, Y., Anderson, H.E., Jr., & Bashaw, W.L. (1968). The simple structure of social maturity at the second grade level. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 28, 145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kupfer, D.J., Detre, T., & Koral, J. (1974). “Deviant” behavior patterns in school children, application of KDS™-14. Psychological Reports, 35, 183–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Langner, T.S., Gersten, J.C, McCarthy, E.D., Green, E.L., Herson, J.H., & Jameson, J.D. (1976). A screening inventory for assessing psychiatric impairment in children 6 to 18. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 286–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loeber, R., & Dishion, T.J. (1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Loeber, R., & Schmalling, K.B. (1985a). Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems: A metaanalysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 337-352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loeber, R., & Schmalling, K.B. (1985b). The utility of differentiating between mixed and pure forms of antisocial child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 315–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McConnell, S.R., & Odom, S.L. (1986). Sociometrics: Peer-referenced measures and the assessment of social competence. In P.S. Strain, M.J. Guralnick, & H.M. Walker (Eds.), Children’s social behavior: Development, assessment, and modification (pp. 215–284). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Miller, L.C. (1967). Louisville Behavior Checklist for males, 6–12 years of age. Psychological Reports, 21, 885–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mitchell, S., & Rosa, P. (1981). Boyhood behaviour problems as precursors to criminality: A fifteen-year follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 19–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nay, R.W. (1979). Multimethod clinical assessment. New York: Gardner Press.Google Scholar
  32. Nucci, L. (1981). Conceptions of personal issues: A domain distinct from moral or social concepts. Child Development, 52, 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oden, S., & Asher, S.R. (1977). Coaching children in social skills for friendship making. Child Development, 48, 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Parker, J.G., & Asher, S.R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Patterson, G.R. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Piaget, J. (1968). The moral judgment of the child (M. Gabain, Trans.). New York: The Free Press. (Original work published 1932)Google Scholar
  37. Pimm, J.B., Quay, H.C., & Werry, J.S. (1967). Dimensions of problem behavior in first grade children. Psychology in the Schools, 4, 155–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pulkkinen, L. (1983). Finland: The search for alternatives to aggresion. In A.P. Goldstein & M. Segall (Eds.), Aggression in a global perspective (pp. 104–144). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  39. Quay, H.C. (1979). Classification. In H.C. Quay & J.S. Werry (Eds.), Psycho-pathological disorders of childhood (pp. 1–42). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Quay, H.C, & Peterson, D.R. (1983). Interim Manual for the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. Coral Gables: University of Miami.Google Scholar
  41. Robbins, L.N. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  42. Roistacher, R.C. (1974). A microeconomic model of sociometric choice. Sociometry, 37, 219–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rutter, M. (1967). A children’s behavior questionnaire for completion by teachers: Preliminary findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singleton, L.C, & Asher, S.R. (1977). Peer preference and social interaction among third-grade children in an integrated school district. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 330–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith, G.M., Schwerin, F.T., Stubblefield, F.S., & Fogg, CP. (1982). Licit and illicit substance use by adolescents: Psychosocial predisposition and escalatory outcome. Contemporary Drug Problems, 11, 75–100.Google Scholar
  46. Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Lying as a problem behavior in children: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (1986). Boys who lie. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 551–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Turiel, E. (1977). Distinct conceptual and developmental domains: Social convention and morality. In C.B. Keasy (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 25, pp. 77–116). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  49. Wile, I.S. (1942). Lying as a biological and social phenomenon. The Nervous Child, 1, 293–313.Google Scholar
  50. Wilson, J.M. (1985). The identification of untrustworthy communication in children. Unpublished master’s thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  51. Wilson, J.M., & Carroll, J.L. (1985). The evaluation of a measure of untrustworthy communication. Paper presented at the annual convention of The National Association of School Psychologists, Las Vegas.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Wilson
  • James L. Carroll

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations