The Microgenesis of Schizophrenic Symptoms

  • Ralph E. Hoffman
Part of the Springer Series in Neuropsychology book series (SSNEUROPSYCHOL)


It is likely that no domain of mental life is immune to schizophrenia. Thought, affect, speech, perception, and belief are all altered by this disorder, frequently with disabling results. No social or racial group, moreover, is immune to acquiring schizophrenia. In a wide variety of countries and cultures, the prevalence of schizophrenia remains relatively constant at around.8% (Neale & Oltmanns, 1980). This enormous public health problem has triggered a broad research effort encompassing psychological, neurobiological, and cognitive perspectives. Despite these efforts, the etiology of schizophrenia remains unknown. To further complicate matters, genetic data now indicate that schizophrenia can result from different causes (Kennedy, et al., 1988).


Supplementary Motor Area Language Production Discourse Structure Necker Cube Speech Error 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen J.F., & Perrault, C.R. (1980). Analyzing intention in utterances. Artificial Intelligence, 15, 143–178.Google Scholar
  2. Arbib, M.A. (1982). From artificial intelligence to neurolinguistics. In M.A. Arbib, D. Caplan, & J.C. Marshall (Eds.), Neural models of language (pp. 77–94). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bleuler, E. (1950). Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International University Press. (Original work published 1911)Google Scholar
  4. Chaika, E. (1974). A linguist looks at “schizophrenic” language. Brain and Language, 1, 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaika, E. (1977). Schizophrenic speech, slips of the tongue, and jargonaphasia: A reply to Fromkin and to Lecours and Vanier-Clement. Brain and Language, 4,464–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaika, E. (1981). How shall a discourse be understood? Discourse Processes, 4,71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaika, E. (1982). A unified explanation for the diverse structural deviations reported for adult schizophrenis with disrupted speech. Journal of Communication Disorders, 15, 167–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, P.R., & Perrault, C.R. (1979). Elements of a plan-based theory of speech acts. Cognitive Science, 3, 177–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deese, J. (1978). Thought into speech. American Scientist,66,314–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fraser, W.I., King, K.M., Thomas, P., & Kendell, R.E. (1986). The diagnosis of schizophrenia by language analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 275–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freedman, B.J. (1974). The subjective experience of perceptual and cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry,30,333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Freedman, B.J., & Chapman, L.J. (1973). Early subjective experience in schizophrenic episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82,46–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fromkin, V.A. (1975). A linguist looks at “A linguist looks at schizophrenic language.” Brain and Language, 2, 498–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garrett, M.F. (1975). The analysis of sentence production. In G. Bowers (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 9, pp. 131–177). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Goldberg, G. (1985). Supplementary motor area: Review and hypotheses. behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 567–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herbert, R.K., & Waltensperger, K.Z. (1980). Schizophrasia: Case study of a paranoid schizophrenic’s language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1,81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hobbes, J. (1979). Conversation as planned behavior. In Proceedings of the 6 th International Joint Conference on Articicial Intelligence, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  18. Hoffman, R.E. (1986). Verbal hallucinations and language production processes in schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 503–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoffman, R.E., Buchsbaum, M.S., Escobar, M., Makuch, R.W., Nuechterlein, K., & Guich, S.M. (1991). EEG coherence of prefrontal areas in normal and schizophrenic males during perceptual activation. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences,in press.Google Scholar
  20. Hoffman, R.E., & Dobscha, S.K. (1989). Cortical Pruning and the development of schizophrenia: A computer model. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15, 477–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffman, R.E., Kirstein, L., Stopek, S., & Cicchetti, D.V. (1982). Apprehending schizophrenic discourse: A structural analysis of the listener’s task. Brain and Language, 15, 207–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoffman, R.E., & Sledge, W. (1984). A microgenetic model of paragrammatisms produced by a schizophrenic speaker. Brain and Language, 21, 147–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoffman, R.E., & Sledge, W. (1988). An analysis of grammatical deviance occurring in spontaneous schizophrenic speech. Journal of neurolinguistics,3,89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoffman, R.E., Stopek, S., & Andreasen, N. (1986). A comparative study of manic versus schizophrenic speech disorganization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 831–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kennedy, J.L., Giuffra, L.A., Moises, H.W., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Pakstis, A.J., Kidd, J.R., Castiglione, C.M., Sjogren, B., Wetterberg, L., & Kidd, K.K. (1988). Evidence against linkage of schizophrenia to markers on chromosome 5 in a northern Swedish pedigree. Nature, 336, 167–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kintsch, W., & Van Dijk. T.A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85, 363–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MacNeilage, P.F. (1986). Bimanual coordination and the beginning of speech. In B. Lindblom & R. Zetterstrom (Eds.), Precursors of early speech (pp. 189–201). Oslo: Stockton Press.Google Scholar
  28. McClelland, M., & Elman, J.L. (1986). Interactive processes in speech perception: The TRACE Model. In Parallel Distributed Processing (Vol. 2, pp. 58–121). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. Maher, B.A. (1974). Delusional thinking and perceptual disorder. Journal of Individual Psychology, 30, 98–113.Google Scholar
  30. Marr, D. (1982). Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  31. Morice, R.D., & Ingram, J.C. (1982). Language analysis in schizophrenia: Diagnostic implications. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 11–21. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Neale, J.M., & Oltmanns, T.F. (1980). Schizophrenia, New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  33. Ojemann, G.A. (1983). Brain organization for language from the perspective of electrical stimulation mapping. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 189–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rock, I. (1983). The logic of perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. Schneider, K. (1957). Pramäre und secundäre symptome bei Schizophrene. Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie und Ihrer Grenzgebeite, 25, 487–490.Google Scholar
  36. Sokolov, A.N. (1972). Inner speech and thought. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  37. van Dijk, T. (1980). Macrostructures: An interdisciplinar study of global structures in discourse, interaction, and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. (E. Hanfmann & G. Vakar, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Zurif, E.B., & Blumstein, S.E. (1978). Language and the brain. In M. Hale, J. Bresnan, & G.A. Miller (Eds.), Linguistic theory and psychological reality (pp. 229–245). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph E. Hoffman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations