Toxicological-Hygienic Requirements for Study, Registration, and Regulations of Pesticides in the USSR

  • Yu. S. Kagan
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 117)


Pesticide toxicology is currently receiving a great deal of scientific and public attention throughout the world. Concerns include the high biological activity of pesticides, their steadily expanding application and distribution over vast areas in many countries, and their ability to invade the human body through foods of plant and animal origin, as well as through water and air.


Organophosphorus Pesticide Organophosphorus Insecticide Maximum Allowable Concen Maximum Acceptable Concentration Persistent Pesticide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aldridge VN and Johnson MK (1972) Side-effect of organophosphorus compounds: neurotoxic action. WHO Bull. 144 N 1–2–3, pp 271–279.Google Scholar
  2. Alekseeva OG, Shumskaya NI (1970) Principles of standardization of chemical allergens. Meditsina, Moscow, pp 111–120.Google Scholar
  3. Antanovich EA (1972) Morphological alterations occurring in an organism from poisonings by DDT analogs—DDD and pertan. In: Hygiene and Toxicology of New Pesticides and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Medgiz, Moscow, pp 299–307.Google Scholar
  4. Archakov AI (1975) Microsomal oxidation. Meditsina, Moscow, 324 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bakhishev GN (1986) Methyl-bromide. In: Handbook on Pesticides. Zdorovie, Kiev, pp 244–248.Google Scholar
  6. Belenky ML (1963) Elements of quantitative evaluation of pharmacologic effect. Medgiz, Leningrad, 149 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Bulletin of International Register of Potential Toxic Chemical Substances (1981). 4:31–33.Google Scholar
  8. Burkatskaya EN, Rudnichenko MF (1969) Study of allergic pesticide properties. In: Pesticide Use Hygiene, Toxicology and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Kiev, pp 166–172.Google Scholar
  9. Buslovich S Y (1986) Derivatives of chlorophenoxyacetic acid. In: Handbook on Pesticides. Urozhay, Kiev, pp 161–171.Google Scholar
  10. Chepinoga OP (1970) Pesticides investigated for blastomogenic, mutagenic, embryotoxic, gonadotoxic properties. In: Pesticide Use Hygiene, Toxicology and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Kiev, pp 30–39.Google Scholar
  11. Gar KA, Sazonova NA, Faleev YN (1959) Study on penetration and metabolism of two organophosphorus insecticides in an organism of warm-blooded animals. In: Hygiene, Toxicology and Clinical Features of New Insectofungicides. Medgiz, Moscow, pp 298–217.Google Scholar
  12. Giebel W, Lohs K, Wiedner GP (1973) Über die kanzerogene hämatoxische und hepatox-ische Wirkung Pestizider organischen Phosphorverbindungen. Arch. f. Geschwulstforschung 4:311–328.Google Scholar
  13. Godovikov NN, Zeymal EV, Kabanchik MI, Mikhelson MY (1962) On dependence of distribution of organophosphorus compounds in an organism upon their chemical structure. In: Hygiene and Toxicology of New Pesticides and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Medgiz, Moscow, pp 203–205.Google Scholar
  14. Gofmekler VA, Khuriev BB (1970) On the problem of interrelation of air contamination with methyl-mercaptofos and pregnancy pathology in women under conditions of Uzbekistan. Transactions of the Conference on Hygienic Problems. Tashkent, pp 251–253.Google Scholar
  15. Goncharuk EI (1977) The main principles of hygienic standardization of chemicals in soil. In: Sanitary Soil Protection from contamination with Chemical Substances. Zdorovie, Kiev, pp 83–150.Google Scholar
  16. Kagan YS (1959) Actual problems in toxicology of organophosphorus insecticides. In: Hygiene, Toxicology, and Clinical Features of Insectofungicides. Medgiz, Moscow, pp 187–208.Google Scholar
  17. Kagan YS (1962) Toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides. In: Chemistry and application of organophosphorus compounds. Moscow Ac. of Science USSR, pp 458–462.Google Scholar
  18. Kagan YS (1963) Toxicology of organophosphorus insecticides and work hygiene of their use. Medgiz, Moscow, 327 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Kagan YS (1977) Toxicology of organophosphorus pesticides. Meditsina, Moscow, 296 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Kagan YS (1981) General toxicology of pesticides. Zdorovie, Kiev, 176 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Kagan YS (1985) Principles of pesticide toxicology, Centre of International Projects GKNT. International Register of Potential Toxic Chemicals, UNEP, Moscow, 176 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Kagan YS, Sasinovich LM (1973) Use of calculation methods for recommended tentative maximum allowable pesticide concentrations in the air of the working zone. Meditsine, Moscow, pp 31–40.Google Scholar
  23. Kagan YS, Stankevich VV (1964) Cumulation coefficient as quantitative criterion for evaluation of cumulative action of toxicant. In: Current Problems of Work Hygiene, Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Diseases in Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries, pp 48–49.Google Scholar
  24. Kagan YS, Kokshareva NV, Tkachenko N (1986). On early manifestations and mechanism of neurotoxic action of organophosphorus pesticides. Bull Exp Biol Med 9:310–312.Google Scholar
  25. Kagan YS, Krasovskiy GN, Shtabskiy BM (1986) Cumulative properties of chemicals, their study, and evaluation. In: Toxicology of Chemical Substances Contaminating the Environment. Centre of International Projects GKNT pp 104–134.Google Scholar
  26. Kagan YS, Sasinovich LM, Ovseenko GI (1976) A differentiated approach to setting calculated TSELs for individual pesticide classes. In: Application of Mathematical Methods for Evaluation of Pesticide Danger. Kiev, pp 78–81.Google Scholar
  27. Kagan YS, Fudel-Osipova SY, Khaykina BY, Kuzminskay UA, Kovtun SD (1969). On the problem of harmful effects of DDT and the mechanism of action. In: Residue Reviews 27. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 43–79.Google Scholar
  28. Kagan YS, Ershova EA, Leonenko OB, Klisenko MA, Szminko PG, Zeinalova TA (1988) The role of monooxigenase system in metabolism and in mode of action of some pesticides. Vestnik of Academy of Med. Sei. of the USSR. Meditsina, Moscow 1:70–75.Google Scholar
  29. Kalayanova-Simeonova (1980). Pesticides. Meditsina, Moscow, 304 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Kasparov AA, Timofeevskaya LA, Litvinov NN, Trakhtenberg IM (1986) Chronic exposure to chemicals. In: Toxometry of Chemical Substances Contaminating the Environment. Centre of International Projects GKNT, pp 134–188.Google Scholar
  31. Kiriuschenkov AP (1978) Impact of harmful factors on skin. Moscow.Google Scholar
  32. Komorova LI (1976) Influence of organochlorine pesticides on the development of circulatory diseases. Problemi Gematologii i perelivaniya krovi 21,11:46–50.Google Scholar
  33. Krasovsky GN, Kagan YS, Szoldakova ZI, Voitenko GA (1986) Determination of lethal effects of toxic substances under different routes of intake. In: Toxometry of Chemical Substances Contaminating the Environment. Centre of International Projects GKNT, Moscow, pp 65–104.Google Scholar
  34. Kundiev YI (1962) Some methodical aspects of skin penetration study concerning organophosphorus insecticides. In: Hygiene and Toxicology of New Pesticides and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Medgiz, Moscow, pp 206–215.Google Scholar
  35. Kundiev YI (1975) Pesticide penetration through skin and prophylaxis of poisonings. Zdorovie, Kiev, 199 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Kundiev YI, Egorov YL, Shumskaya NI, Alekseeva OG, Roszkovskaya GP (1986) Skin-irritating, sensitizing, and resorptive action of substances. In: Toxometry of Chemical Substances Contaminating the Environment. Centre of International Projects GKNT, Moscow, pp 188–211.Google Scholar
  37. Kurinny AI, Pilinskaya MA (1976) Investigations of pesticides as environmental mutagens. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 114 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Lakin KM, Krilov YF (1987) Biotransformation of medicinal substances. Meditsina, Moscow, pp.Google Scholar
  39. Lohs K, Dedeka W, Giebel W (1979) Studies on the alkylating properties of organophosphorus pesticides in mammals in vivo. In: 3-d Intern. Congr. of Pestic. Chemistry. Abstr. Book, Helsinky, p 328.Google Scholar
  40. Lukaneva AM (1976) Influence of low pesticide doses on the development of atherosclerosis in experiment. In: Pesticide Use Hygiene, Toxicology and Clinical Features of Poisonings, Moscow, II. 1:90–92.Google Scholar
  41. Lyublina EI, Minkina NA, Rilova ML (1971) Adaptation to industrial poisons as a phase of intoxication. Medgiz. Leningrad, 206 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Makhaeva GF, Maligin VV, Martinov IV (1987) Delayed neurotoxicity under exposure of organophosphorus pesticides. Agrochimiya 12:103–104.Google Scholar
  43. Makovskaya EI, Burkatskaya EN, Voitenko GA (1962) On DDT exposure on animal’s organism by inhalation. In: Hygiene and Toxicology of New Pesticides and Clinical Features of Poisonings, Medgiz, Moscow, pp 262–268.Google Scholar
  44. Malyuk VI (1966) On allergic diseases of chemical etiology. In: Hygiene and Toxicology of Pesticides and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Zdorovie, Kiev 4:42–53.Google Scholar
  45. Medved LI (1946) Toxicology of some organic mercuric compounds. State Medical Publishing House, Kiev, 110 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Medved LI (1976) Summary results and prospective goals of research in pesticide hygiene and toxicology. In: Pesticide Use Hygiene, Toxicology and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Moscow, II, 1:3–13.Google Scholar
  47. Medved LI, Spynu EI, Kagan YS (1968) Pesticides and public health problems. J Union Mendeleev Chem. Soc. 13, 3:263–271.Google Scholar
  48. Medved LI, Spynu EI, Antonovich EA, Vrachinsky KK, Kagan YS (1980) Condition and perspectives of complex hygienic standardization of pesticides in the environment. In: All-Union Constituent Conference on Toxicology. Theses of Reports, pp 14–17.Google Scholar
  49. Melnikov NN (1975) Chemistry and pesticide technology. Khimiya, Moscow, p 766.Google Scholar
  50. Melnikov NN (1987) Pesticides: Chemistry, technology, and application. Khimiya, Moscow, p 712.Google Scholar
  51. National Academy Press (1987). Regulating pesticides in food. Washington, D.C., p 272.Google Scholar
  52. Petrovskaya OG (1979) On blastomogenicity of chlorophos. In: The Newest Problems of Pesticide Use Hygiene. Theses of reports. Kiev, pp 164–165.Google Scholar
  53. Polchenko VY, Tkach LI, Gumenny VS, Sokolovsky NV, Baida LK (1976) Epidemiological aspects of the study of morbidity due to pesticide use in agriculture. In: Pesticide Use Hygiene, Toxicology, and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Moscow, 11:125–128.Google Scholar
  54. Popovich NA, Burkatskaya EN (1986) Derivatives of simmtriazines. In: Handbook of Pesticides. Uroszay, Kiev, pp 206–215.Google Scholar
  55. Prozorovsky VB (1962) Application of the least-squares method for probit-analysis of lethality curves. Framakologiyaitoxicologiya 1:115–120.Google Scholar
  56. Rodionov GA, Voronina BM (1973) Influence of chlorophos on development of hepato-pathology in experiment. Vrachebnoe Delo, 11:54–58.Google Scholar
  57. Rubenchik BL (1977) Biochemistry of carcinogenesis. Zdorovie, Kiev, 192 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Sanotsky IV (1970) (ed) Methods of determination of toxicity and danger of chemical substances (toxometry). Meditsina, Moscow.Google Scholar
  59. Sanotsky IV, Ulanova IP (1975) Criteria of harmfulness in hygiene and toxicology for hazard evaluation of chemical compounds. Meditsina, Moscow, 328 pp.Google Scholar
  60. Shabad LM (1966) To the question of hygienic standardization of carcinogenic substances. In: Gignia Sanit. 4. N 2, pp 18–23.Google Scholar
  61. Shabad LM (1978) Methods for determination and investigation of blastomogenicity of chemical substances. Moscow, 205 pp.Google Scholar
  62. Shkvatsabaya TK and Metelitsa VY (1971) In: Cardiology. Moscow N 2, pp 5–11.Google Scholar
  63. Shtabsky VM, Kagan YS (1974) Evaluation of cumulative properties of chemicals according to the index and standardization of coefficient of cumulation. Gigienai sanitariya 3:65–67.Google Scholar
  64. Shtenberg and Ribakova (1967) Influence of some pesticides in endocrine systems. In: Gigiena a Sanit. Moscow, N 1, pp 81–86.Google Scholar
  65. Shtenberg AI, Orlova NV, Torchinsky AM (1979) Effects of pesticides of different chemical structure on gonads and embryogenesis of experimental animals. Gigienai sanitariyaGoogle Scholar
  66. Sidorov KK (1980) Substantiation system for the safety factor for establishing MAC of volatile substances in the air of the working zone. Gigiena truda iprofzabolevanija 6:17–19.Google Scholar
  67. Spynu EI (1962) Changes in the high nervous activity and functional state of the adrenal glands at exposure of low doses of insecticides of diene synthesis. In: Hygiene and Toxicology of New Pesticides and Clinical Features of Poisonings. Gosmedizdat, Moscow, pp 257–262.Google Scholar
  68. Spynu EI, Beim AM (1986) Ecologic-toxicologic methods of assessment of chemicals and their use in environmental hygiene. In: Toxicometry of Chemical Substances Contaminating the Environment. Centre of International Projects GKNT, pp 316–334.Google Scholar
  69. Spynu EI, Moloszanova EG (1981) Factors defining soil contamination with pesticides. Gigiena i sanitariya 5:16–18.Google Scholar
  70. Tkachenko H, Kagan YS, Kokshareva NV, Badaeva LN (1985) Delayed neurotoxic effects of a new fungicide-aphos. Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 6:80–83.Google Scholar
  71. Trakhtenberg IM, Timofeevskaya LA, Kviatkovskaya IY (1987) Methods for studying chronic effects of chemical and biological pollutants. Zinatne, Riga, 142 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Turkevich NM, Samudzhan EM (1975) Hormones and carcinogenesis. Kiev, 168 pp.Google Scholar
  73. Turusov VS (1975) In: Vopzosi onkoligii. Leningrad, v 21, 12:127–135.Google Scholar
  74. Turusov VS (ed) (1987) Carcinogenic substances. Handbook: Transactions of International Agency of Cancer Research. Meditsina, Moscow, 334 pp.Google Scholar
  75. USSR Ministry of Health (1988) Methodical Instructions for Hygienic Evaluation of New Pesticides. VNHGINTOX.Google Scholar
  76. Vievskaya GA (1973) About neural-psychic disorders under protracted contact with organophosphorus pesticides. Vrachebnoye delo, 9:35–39.Google Scholar
  77. Voitenko GA, Kagan YS, Tomkiv VM, Fedorenko VI, Shtabsky BM (1984). On necessity of following up the ratio of oral and inhalative toxicity of substances while substantiating hygienic standards. Gigiena i sanitariya 6:13–16.Google Scholar
  78. Voronina VM (1971) Experimental data regarding the embryotoxic action of phtalophes. In: Pesticide Use Hygiene, Toxicology. Clinical Features of Poisoning. Kiev 9:254–257.Google Scholar
  79. World Health Organization (1988) The WHO recommended classification of pesticides hazard. Geneva, 39 pp.Google Scholar
  80. Zaugolnikov SD, Kochanov MM, Loit AO, Stavchinsky II (1978) Experimental methods for determination of toxicity and danger of chemical substances. Meditsina, Leningrad, pp.Google Scholar
  81. Zilber YD (1976) Neurotoxic action of poisons. In: Current Problems of Industrial Toxicology. Leningrad, pp 129–145.Google Scholar
  82. Zyuss P, Kintsel V, Scribner DD (1977) Cancer experiments and hypotheses, Mir, Moscow, 360 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Inc. New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu. S. Kagan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General Toxicology and Experimental Pathology, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene and Toxicology of Pesticides, Polymers and PlasticsMinistry of HealthKievUSSR

Personalised recommendations