In Situ Water Vapor Measurements in the Lyman-alpha and Infrared Spectrum: Theory and Components

  • James E. Tillman
Chapter

Abstract

The measurement of humidity and the direct measurement of fluxes of moisture, or their indirect parameterization, present one of the most important as well as most difficult problems in atmospheric-surface interaction. The primary reason is that there is no universal humidity instrument that will function accurately under all atmospheric conditions. Without protection, it is quite difficult to obtain good measurements from most sensors soon after they have been exposed to saturation conditions. Schemes to protect sensors from water, dust, organics, ice, etc. generally bias the results by some unknown amount, produce hysteresis, and slow down their response. The problems are less severe in the range of what might be called comfortable humidity-temperature conditions, and become more severe at lower and higher temperatures, especially at the lowest and highest relative humidities. Absorption by and adsorption on the components of the system leading to the transducer element can readily produce misleading results especially when the humidity rapidly decreases by an order of magnitude.

Keywords

Nickel Dust Microwave Lithium Argon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brooks DL (1971) Development of an infrared absorption hygrometer using solid state energy sources. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  2. Buck AL (1976) The variable-path Lyman-alpha hygrometer and its operating characteristics. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 57:1113–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buck A (1977) Lyman-alpha radiation source with high spectral purity. Appl Optics 16:2364–2366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buck A (1985) The Lyman-alpha absorption hygrometer. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 411–436. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, DC, 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell GS, Tanner BD (1985) A krypton hygrometer for measurement of atmospheric water vapor concentration. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 609–614. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, DC, 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  6. Clough SA, Kneizys FX, Shettle EP, Anderson GP (1986) Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FASCOD2, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Williamsburg, VA.Google Scholar
  7. Cortina VB (1985) Sampling systems for chilled mirror dewpoint hygrometers. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 849–854. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, DC., 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  8. Deirmendjian D (1969) “Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions”. American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Fan J (1987) Determination of the psychrometer coefficient A of the WMO reference psychrometer by comparison with a standard gravimetric hygrometer. J Atmos Ocean Tech 4:239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jensen JB, Baumgartner D, Raga GB (1988). On the observation of cloud temperature and liquid water content using a Lyman α and an FSSP sensor. Proceedings of the 10th International Cloud Physics Conference, Bad Hamburg, FRG 1:40–42.Google Scholar
  11. Johns JWC (1965) The absorption of radiation by water vapor. In “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry” (A. Wexler, Ed.), Vol. 1 (Ruskin, Ed.), pp. 417–427. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Katz JJ, Rabinowitch E (1951) “The Chemistry of Uranium The Element, Its Binary and Related Compounds”. Dover Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. King WH (1965) The piezoelectric sorption hygrometer. In “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry” (A. Wexler, ed.), Vol. 1, Ruskin, ed.), pp. 578–583. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  14. King WH Jr (1969a) “Using Quartz Crystals as Sorption Detectors…Part 1: Research/Development”, Volume 20, No. 4, pp. 28–34. F.D. Chicago Ill. Thompson Publications.Google Scholar
  15. King, H Jr (1969b) “Using Quartz Crystals as Sorption Detectors…Part 2: Research/Development”, Volume 20, No. 5, pp. 28–33. F.D. Thompson Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Kneizys FX, Shettle EP, Gallery WO, Chetwynd JH, Abreu LW, Selby JEA, Clough SA, Fenn RW (1983) Atmospheric transmittance/radiance computer code LOWTRAN 6. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Report No. AFGL-TR-83–0187, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731.Google Scholar
  17. Kreplin RW, Chubb TA, Friedman H (1962) X-Ray and Lyman-alpha emission from the sun as measured from the NRL-1 satellite. J Geophys Res 67. pp. 2231–2253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mattix SC (1971) Development and analysis of a Lyman-alpha absorption hygrometer. M.S. Thesis, Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  19. McCartney EJ (1983) Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases; the Physical Processes”. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Mestayer P, Rebattet C, Goutail F (1985) Minaturized Lyman-alpha hygrometer to measure humidity turbulent fluxes in tunnel and atmosphere. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 437–452. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, D.C., 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  21. Moisture and Humidity (1985) “Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”. Proceedings of the 1895 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, D.C., 1985, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  22. Raga GB, Jensen JB, Baker MB (1990) Characteristics of cumulus band clouds off the coast of Hawaii. J Atmos Sci 47:338–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Randall DL, Hanley TE, Larison OK (1965) The NRL Lyman-alpha humidiometer. In “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry” (A. Wexler, ed.), Vol. 1 (Ruskin, ed.), pp. 444–454. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Rothman LS, et al. (1987) The HITRAN database: 1986 edition. Appl Optics 26(19), 4058–4097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shaw WJ, Tillman E (1985) A correction for different wet-bulb and dry-bulb response in thermocouple psychrometry. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 779–790. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, D.C., 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  26. Smith HJP, et al (1978) FASCODE-Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (Spectral Transmittance and Radiance). AFGL-TR-78–0081 Visidyne, Inc., 19 Third Avenue, Burlington MA 01803, January 16.Google Scholar
  27. Staats WF, et al. (1965) Infrared absorption hygrometer. In “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry” A. Wexler, ed.), Vol. 1 (Ruskin, ed.), pp. 465–480. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Tillman JE (1961) Atmospheric humidity measurements by ultraviolet techniques. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  29. Tillman JE (1965) Water vapor density measurements utilizing the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet and infrared radiation. In “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and control in Science and Industry” (A. Wexler, ed.), Vol. 1 (Ruskin, ed.), pp. 428–443. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Tillman JE (1985) Near infrared humidity techniques using semiconductor sources: Incoherent sources and theoretical calculations in the presence of cloud and fog. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 791–795. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, D.C., 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  31. Wada M, Iwasaka Y, Murabayshi S, Yamashita Y (1985) Feasible study of monitoring the content of water vapor under a very dry atmospheric condition by means of Lyman α/OH hygrometer. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 451–461. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, D.C., 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  32. Watanabe K, Zelikoff M, Inn EC (1953) Absorption Coefficients of Several Atmospheric Gases. Air Force Cambridge Research Center Technical Report No. 52-23, Geophysical Res. Papers, No. 21, June.Google Scholar
  33. Watanabe K, Saki H, Motti J, Nakayama T (1958) Absorption Cross Section of O 2, NO, and NO 2 with an Improved Photoelectric Method. Air Force Cambridge Research Center, Technical Note 58–658, Scientific Report No. 4, December.Google Scholar
  34. Wexler A. (ed.) (1965) “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, Vols. 1–4. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Wolfe WL, Zissis GJ (eds.) (1989) “The Infrared Handbook”. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan and SPIE, P.O. Box 10, Bellingham, WA 982270-0010.Google Scholar
  36. Wood RC (1965) The infrared hygrometer-its application to difficult humidity measurement problems. In “Humidity and Moisture, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry” (A Wexler, ed.), Vol. 1 (Ruskin, ed.), pp. 492–504. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Wylie RG, Lalas T (1985) Accurate psychrometer coefficients for wet and ice-covered cylinders in laminar transverse airstreams. In “Moisture and Humidity 1985, Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, pp. 37–56. Proceedings of the 1985 International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, DC, 1985. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • James E. Tillman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations