Nitrogen occurs in the biosphere in oxygenation states ranging from 3- (ammonia) to 5+ (nitrate). The most important inorganic forms of nitrogen are ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3 -), nitrite (NO2 -), and molecular nitrogen (N2). All of these forms are interrelated in the environment by the nitrogen cycle, a complicated series of transformations (described in Chemistry section). Naturally occurring organic nitrogen compounds occur in surface waters and contain amino and amide nitrogen, and some heterocyclic compounds such as purines and pyrimidines.


Nitrogen Cycle American Water Work Association Organic Nitrogen Compound Nervous System Disorder Water Pollution Control Federation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Water Works Association. 1985. An AWWA survey of inorganic contaminants in water supplies. Journal of the American Water Works Association 77:67–72.Google Scholar
  2. Ansari, I.A. 1987. Acute toxicity of sodium nitrite on Channa punctatus (Bloch) and Mystus (Mystus) vittatus (Bloch). Acta Hydrochimica Hydrobiolgica 15:175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, T.E., G.J. Sherman, P.N. Corey, D. Walters, and B. Lo. 1988. Water nitrates and CNS birth defects: a population-based case-control study. Archives of Environmental Health 43:162–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beukema, A.A., G.P. Hekstra, and C. Venema. 1986. The Netherlands’ environmental policy for the North Sea and Wadden Sea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 7:117–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouwer, E.J., and P.B. Crowe. 1988. Biological processes in drinking water treatment. Journal of the American Water Works Association 80:82–93.Google Scholar
  6. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines. 1987. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers. Environment Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  7. Craun, G.F., D.G. Greathouse, and D.H. Zunderson. 1981. Methemoglobin levels in young children consuming high nitrate well water in the United States. International Journal of Epidemiology 10:309–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crumpton, W.G., and T.M. Isenhart. 1987. Nitrogen mass balance in streams receiving secondary effluent: the role of algal assimilation. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 59:821–824.Google Scholar
  9. Delavalle, M. 1983. Prevention del’enrichissement des eaux souterraines en nitrates d’origine agricole. In: Ground water in water resources planning, IAHS Publication Number 142, 1005–1014. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  10. Fan, A.M., C.C. Willhite, and S.A. Book. 1987. Evaluation of the nitrate drinking water standard with reference to infant methemoglobinemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 7:135–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kennedy, M.S., and J.M. Bell. 1986. The effects of advanced wastewater treatment on river water quality. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 58:1138–1144.Google Scholar
  12. Kudeyarov, V.N., and V.N. Bashkin. 1980. Nitrogen balance in small river basins under agricultural and forestry use. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 14:23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lauch, R.P., and G.A. Guter. 1986. Ion exchange for the removal of nitrate from well water. Journal of the American Water Works Association 78:83–88.Google Scholar
  14. Lindau, C.W., R.D. De Laune, and G.L. Jones. 1988. Fate of added nitrate and ammonium-nitrogen entering a Louisiana gulf coast swamp forest. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 60:386–389.Google Scholar
  15. McLeod, R.V., and R.O. Hegg. 1984. Pasture runoff water quality from application of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. Journal of Environmental Quality 13:122–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nevissi, A.E., F.B. DeWalle, J.F.C. Sung, K. Mayer, and R. Dalsey. 1988. Heavy metal variability of different municipal sludges as measured by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 23:823–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Onstad, C.A., and J. Blake. 1980. Thames basin nitrate and agricultural relations. In: Watershed management 1980, 961–973. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Piper, R.G., LB. McElwain, L.E. Orme, J.P. McCraren, L.G. Fowler, and J.R. Leonard. 1982. Fish hatchery management. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 517 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Quentin, K.E. 1988. Die Nitratsituation in der Bundersrepublik Deutschland. Acta Hydrochimica Hydrobiologica 16:385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Robertson, G.P. 1986. Nitrogen: regional contributions to the global cycle. Environment 28:16–29.Google Scholar
  21. Stull, J.K., R.B. Baird, and T.C. Heesen. 1986. Marine sediment core profiles of trace constituents offshore of a deep wastewater outfall. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 58:985–991.Google Scholar
  22. US Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Ambient water quality criteria for ammonia-1984. US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-440/5–84–026. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  23. Walton, G. 1951. Survey of literature relating to infant methemoglobinemia due to nitrate contaminated water. American Journal of Public Health 41:986–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Williams, K.A., D.W.J. Green, and D. Pascoe. 1986. Studies on the acute toxicity of pollutants to freshwater macroinvertebrates. Archives fur Hydrobiolgie 106:61–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jame W. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.AlbertaCanada

Personalised recommendations