GnRH Subgroups: A Microarchitecture

  • J. C. King
  • B. S. Rubin
Part of the Serono Symposia, USA book series (SERONOSYMP)


GnRH cell bodies, as revealed by immunocytochemistry, are small fusiform cells with smooth or irregular profiles (Fig. 10.1). They are primarily bipolar (6 × 16 µm) or unipolar (6.5 × 10 µm) although a proportion of cells appear to be tripolar or apolar (1). Processes derived from the cells display a beaded or varicose appearance shortly after emerging from the cell body. Secondary processes originate from these primary processes (Fig. 10.1); collateralization is a common feature of these cells. The diffuse distribution of scattered GnRH cell bodies within the basal forebrain exhibits no clearly distinct organizational pattern. However, studies in our laboratory using computerized techniques, and which will be presented later in this paper, do reveal an organizational scheme of GnRH cells in the rat.


Basal Forebrain Median Eminence Preoptic Area Pituitary Stalk GnRH Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    King JC, Tobet SA, Snavely FL, Arimura AA. LHRH immunopositive cells and their projections to the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. J Comp Neurol 1982; 209: 287–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffman GE, Gibbs FP. LHRH pathways in rat brain: “deafferentation” spares a sub-chiasmatic LHRH projection to the median eminence. Neuroscience 1982; 7: 1979–1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ambach G, Kivovics P, Palkovits M. The arterial and venous blood supply of the preoptic region in the rat. Acta Morphol Acad Sci Hung 1978; 26: 21–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weindl A, Sofroniew MV. Neurohormones and circumventricular organs. In: Scott DE, Kozlowski GP, Weindl A, eds. Brain-endocrine interaction, III: neural hormones and reproduction. Basel: Karger, 1978:117–137.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katsuura G, Arimura A, Koves K, Gottschall PE. Involvement of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis and preoptic area in interleukin 1 beta-induced ACTH release. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: E163 - E171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    King JC, Anthony EL. LHRH neurons and their projections in humans and other mammals: species comparisons. Peptides 1984; 5: 195–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stopa EG, Koh-Tongju E, Svendsen CN, Rogers W, Schwaber J, King JC. 3-D mapping of gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( GnRH) in human basal forebrain and amgydala. Soc Neurosci 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    King JC, Sower SA, Anthony EL. Neuronal systems immunoreactive with antiserum to lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain of Petromyzon marinas. Cell Tissue Res 1988; 253: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    King JC, Tobet SA, Snavely FL, Arimura AA. The LHRH system in normal and neonatally androgenized female rats. Peptides 1980; 1 (suppl 1): 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anthony EL, King JC, Stopa EG. Immunocytochemical localization of LHRH in the median eminence, infundibular stalk, and neurohypophysis: evidence for multiple sites of releasing hormone secretion in humans and other mammals. Cell Tissue Res 1984: 236: 5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wildt L, Hausler A, Hutchison JS, Marshall G, Knobil E. Estradiol as a gonadotropin releasing hormone in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 1981; 108: 2011–2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gibson MJ, Silverman AJ, Kokoris GJ, Zimmerman EA, Perlow MJ, Charlton HM. GnRH cells brain grafts: correction of hypogonadism in mutant mice. Ann NY Acad Sci 1987; 495: 296–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Donovan BT, Harris GW. Effect of pituitary stalk section on light-induced oestrus in the ferret. Nature 1954; 174: 503–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomson APD, Zuckerman S. Functional relations of the adenohypophysis and hypothalamus. Nature 1953; 171: 970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wray S, Nieburgs A, Elkabes S. Spatiotemporal cell expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the prenatal mouse: evidence for an embryonic origin in the olfactory platode. Dev Brain Res 1989; 46: 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schwanzel-Fukuda M, Pfaff DW. Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons. Nature 1989; 338: 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwanzel-Fukuda M, Abraham S, Crossin KL, Edelman GM, Pfaff DW. Immunocytochemical demonstration of neural cell adhesion molecule along the migration route of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in mice [Abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1990; 16.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chuong CM, Edelman GM. Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during development of different regions of the nervous system. J Neurosci 1984; 4: 2354–2368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kokons GJ, Silverman AJ, Zimmerman EA, Perlow MJ, Gibson MJ. Implantation of fetal preoptic area into the lateral ventricle of adult hypogonadal mutant mice: the pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone axonal outgrowth into the host brain. Neuroscience 1987; 22: 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    King JC, Anthony EL, Gustafson AW, Damassa DA. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) cells and their projections in the forebrain of the bat Myotis lucifugus lucifugus. Brain Res 1984; 298: 289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    King JC, Parsons JA, Erlandsen SL, Williams TH. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) pathway of the rat hypothalamus revealed by the unlabeled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Cell Tissue Res 1974; 153: 211–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    King JC, Anthony EL. Biosynthesis of LHRH: inferences from immunocytochemical studies. Peptides 1983; 4: 93–970.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arimura A. Recent developments in the study of hypothalamic hormones with special reference to LHRH and somatostatin. Folia Endocrinol Jpn 1976; 52: 1159–1183.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Millar RP, Denniss P, Tobler C, et al. Presumptive prohormonal forms of hypothalamic peptide hormones. In: Vincent JD, Kordon C, eds. Cell biology of hypothalamic neurosecretion. Bordeaux: Coll. Int. du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1977: 487–510.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Adelman JP, Mason AJ, Hayflick JS, Seeburg PH. Isolation of the gene and hypothalamic cDNA for the common precursor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin release-inhibiting factor in human and rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 179–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    King JC, Kugel G, Zahniser D, Wooledge K, Damassa DA, Alexsavich B. Changes in populations of LHRH-immunopositive cell bodies following gonadectomy. Peptides 1987; 8: 721–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    King JC, Anthony EL, Damassa DA, Elkind Hirsch KE. Morphological evidence that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons participate in the suppression by estradiol of pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats. Neuroendocrinology 1987; 45: 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hiatt ES, Seiler GR, Brunetta PG, King JC. Cyclic changes in numbers of LHRH neurons in female rats [Abstract]. Soc Neurosci 1988;18th annual meeting: # 161. 10–80.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Seiler GR, Brunetta PG, King JC. Subcellular features of LHRH neurons in cycling female rats [Abstract]. Soc Neurosci 1988;18th annual meeting: #161.9–80.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    King JC, Seiler GR. Ultrastructural evidence suggests variations in biosynthesis and processing within LH-RH neurons as a function of ovariectomy in rats. Brain Res 1988; 452: 127–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anthony ELP, Weston PJ, Montvilo JA, Bruhn TO, Neel K, King JC. Dynamic aspects of the LHRH system associated with ovulation in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). J Reprod Fertil 1989; 87: 671–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Setalo G, Vigh S, Schally AV, Arimura A, Flerko B. LH-RH-containing neural elements in the rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 1975; 96: 135–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Setalo G, Vigh S, Schally AV, Arimura A, Flerko B. Immunohistological study of the origin of LH-RH-containing nerve fibers of the rat hypothalamus. Brain Res 1976; 103: 597–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sternberger LA. Immunocytochemistry. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986: 168–171.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koenig JFR, Klippel RA. The rat brain: a stereotaxic atlas of the forebrain and lower parts of the brain stem. Huntington, NY: RK Krieger Publ. Co., 1970.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bleier R, Byne W. Septum and hypothalamus. In: Paxinos G, ed. The rat nervous system, vol. 1: Forebrain and midbrain. New York: Academic Press, 1985: 87–118.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leranth C, Segura LM, Palkovits M, MacLusky NJ, Shanabrough M, Naftolin F. The LH-RH-containing neuronal network in the preoptic area of the rat: demonstration of LH-RH-containing nerve terminals in synaptic contact with LH-RH neurons. Brain Res 1985; 345: 332–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pelletier G. Demonstration of contacts between neurons staining for LHRH in the preoptic area of the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 1989; 46: 457–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chen WP, Witkin JW, Silverman AJ. Sexual dimorphism in the synaptic input to gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 695–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Coen CW, Montagnese C, Opacka-Juffry J. Coexistence of gonadotrophinreleasing hormone and galanin: immunohistochemical and functional studies. J Neuroendocrinol 1990; 2: 107–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Merchenthaler I, Lopez FJ, Negro-Vilar A. Colocalization of galanin and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in a subset of preoptic hypothalamic neurons: anatomical and functional correlates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 6326–6330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Oksche A. Evolution, differentiation and organization of hypothalamic systems controlling reproduction. In: Scott DE, Kozlowski GP, Weindl A, eds. Brain-endocrine interaction, III: Neural hormones and reproduction. Basel: Karger, 1978: 2–15.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    King JC, Rubin BS, Yao P. Changes in LHRH neuronal populations associated with the LH surge in young and middle-aged female rats [Abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1990; 16.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    King JC, Letourneau RJ, Brenner JF. LHRH within individual neurovascular terminals is increased in proestrous compared to estrous rats. Endocrine Society Meeting, 1990.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Rehnberg GL, Booth KC, McElroy WK, Hein JF. Regional patterning of hormones in the female rat anterior pituitary: disproportionate changes over the estrous cycle. Endocr Res 1988; 14: 263–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rethelyi M. Regional and sexual differences in the size of the neuro-vascular contact surface of the rat median eminence and pituitary stalk. Neuroendocrinology 1979; 28: 82–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Silverman AJ, Jhamandas J, Renaud LP. Localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons that project to the median eminence. J Neurosci 1987; 7: 2312–2319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Merchenthaler I, Setalo G, Petrusz P, Negro-Vilar A, Flerko B. Identification of hypophysiotropic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons by combined retrograde labeling and immunocytochemistry. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1989; 94: 133–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. King
  • B. S. Rubin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations