Characterization of Eastern U.S. Spruce-Fir Soils

  • Ivan J. Fernandez
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 96)


The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter will describe the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 described the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest; further information can be obtained on the forest types included in the spruce-fir category from Eyre (1980) and USDA (1965).


Forest Soil Soil Solution Mineral Soil Forest Floor Base Cation 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

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  • Ivan J. Fernandez

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