# Normal Theory Models and Some Extensions

• James K. Lindsey
Part of the Lecture Notes in Statistics book series (LNS, volume 72)

## Abstract

One of the most widely used tools in all of statistics is linear regression. This is often misnamed least squares regression, but a least squares estimation refers to a deterministic process, whereby the best straight line is fitted through a series of points. In statistical analysis, the interpretation is much different although the technical calculations remain the same. Normal theory linear regression carries the assumption that the response variable has a normal or Gaussian distribution:
$$f(y;\mu ,{{\sigma }^{2}}) = \exp [{{(y - \mu )}^{2}}/(2{{\sigma }^{2}})]/\sqrt {{2\pi {{\sigma }^{2}}}}$$
(1.1)
The mean of this distribution changes in some deterministic way with the values of the explanatory variable(s), e.g.
$${{\mu }_{i}} = {{\beta }_{0}} + \sum\limits_{j} {{{\beta }_{j}}{{X}_{{ij}}}}$$
(1.2)
while the variance remains constant. Then, the regression equation specifies how the mean of the distribution changes for each value of the explanatory variable(s); individual observations will be dispersed about the mean with the given variance. This is illustrated in Figure 1.1.

Covariance