Advertisement

Ecological Flows Across Landscape Boundaries: A Conceptual Overview

  • John A. Wiens
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 92)

Abstract

Natural or managed ecosystems are mosaics of patches of different habitats or environments. These patches are defined by their boundaries, and the transition zone between adjacent patches is recognized as an ecotone (Holland 1988). Boundaries occur when structural or functional properties of ecological systems change discontinuously or nonmonotonically in space or time. Ecotones can therefore be characterized by (a) the change in the rate of change in variables of interest in space or time, (b) the contrast between the states of the patches on either side of the ecotone, and (c) the smoothness of the transition zone (the variance of the rate of change) (Fig. 10.1).

Keywords

Passive Diffusion Patch Type Boundary Flow Boundary Permeability Ecological Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addicott JF, Aho JM, Antolin MF, Padilla MF, Richardson JS, Soluk DA (1987) Ecological neighborhoods: scaling environmental patterns. Oikos 49:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen TFH, O’Neill RV, Hoekstra TW (1984) Interlevel relations in ecological research and management: some working principles from hierarchy theory. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station General Techincal Report RM-110:1–11, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrén H, Angelstam P (1988) Elevated predation rates as an edge effect in habitat islands: experimental evidence. Ecology 69:544–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrewartha HG, Birch LC (1984) The ecological web: more on the distribution and abundance of animals. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  5. Beecher WJ (1942) Nesting birds and the vegetation substrate. Chicago Ornithological Society, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Blondel J (1987) From biogeography to life history theory: a multithematic approach illustrated by the biogeography of vertebrates. J Biogeographyl4:405–422Google Scholar
  7. Brittingham MC, Temple SA (1983) Have cowbirds caused forest songbirds to decline? BioScience 33:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buechner M (1987) Conservation in insular parks: simulation models of factors affecting the movement of animals across park boundaries. Biol Conserv 41:57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buechner M (1989) Are small-scale landscape features important factors for field studies of small mammal dispersal sinks? Landscape Ecol 2:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DeAngelis DL, Waterhouse JC (1987) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium concepts in ecological models. Ecol Monogr 57:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. den Boer PJ (1981) On the survival of populations in a heterogeneous and variable environment. Oecologia 50:39–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. di Castri F, Hadley M (1988) Enhancing the credibility of ecology: interacting along and across hierarchical scales. Geo Journal 17:5–35Google Scholar
  13. Fahrig L, Paloheimo J (1988) Effect of spatial arrangement of habitat patches on local population size. Ecology 69:468–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forman RTT, Godron M (1986) Landscape ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Gates JE, Gysel LW (1978) Avian nest dispersion and fledgling success in fieldforest ecotones. Ecology 59:871–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haggett P, Cliff AD, Frey A (1977) Locational analysis in human geography. 2nd ed. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Harkness RD, Maroudas NG (1985) Central place foraging by an ant (Cataglyphis bicolor Fab.): a model of searching. Animal Behav 33:916–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harris LD (1984) The fragmented forest. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoffmann G (1983) The random elements in the systematic search behavior of the desert isopod Hemilepistus reaumuri. Behav Ecol and Sociobiol 13:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holland MM (1988) SCOPE/MAB technical consultations on landscape boundaries. Biol Intl 17:47–106Google Scholar
  21. Howard RJ, Larson JS (1985) A stream habitat classification system for beaver. J Wildl Manage 49:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jackson JK, Fisher SG (1986) Secondary production, emergence, and export of aquatic insects of a Sonoran Desert stream. Ecology 67:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Janzen DH (1983) No park is an island: increase in interference from outside as park size decreases. Oikos 41:402–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnston CA, Naiman RJ (1987) Boundary dynamics at the aquatic-terrestrial interface: the influence of beaver and geomorphology. Landscape Ecol 1:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kamil AC, Krebs JR, Pulliam HR (eds) (1987) Foraging behavior. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Kareiva P (1983) Influence of vegetation texture on herbivore populations: resource concentration and herbivore movement. In Denno RF, McClure MS (eds) Variable plants and herbivores in natural and managed systems. Academic Press, New York, pp 259–289Google Scholar
  27. Kareiva P, Shigesada N (1983) Analyzing insect movement as a correlated random walk. Oecologia 56:234–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leopold A (1933) Game management. Charles Scribners and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Leopold A (1941) Lakes in relation to terrestrial life patterns. In A symposium on hydrobiology. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  30. Lidicker WZ (1975) The role of dispersal in the demography of small mammals. In Golley FB, Petrusewicz K, Ryszkowski L (eds) Small mammals: their productivity and population dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, pp 103–128Google Scholar
  31. Mandelbrot B (1983) The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman & Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  32. Mangel M, Clark CW (1986) Towards a unified foraging theory. Ecology 67:1127–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mangel M, Clark CW (1988) Dynamic modeling in behavioral ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  34. McCulloch CE, Cain ML (1989) Analyzing discrete movement data as a correlated random walk. Ecology 70:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Naiman RJ, Decamps H, Johnston CA, Pastor J (1988) The potential importance of boundaries to fluvial ecosystems. J N Am Benthol Soc 7:289–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Okubo A (1980) Diffusion and ecological problems: mathematical models. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Okubo A (1986) Dynamical aspects of animal grouping: swarms, schools, flocks, and herds. Advances in Biophysics 22:1–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Orbach R (1986) Dynamics of fractal networks. Science 231:814–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Orians GH (1969) On the evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals. Am Nat 103:589–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pickett STA, White PS (eds) (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Pulliam HR (1988) Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am Nat 132:652–661Google Scholar
  42. Ratti JT, Reese KP (1988) Preliminary test of the ecological trap hypothesis. J Wildlife Manage 52:484–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Saunders DA, Arnold GW, Burbidge AA, Hopkins AJM (eds) (1987) Nature conservation: the role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  44. Schonewald-Cox CM, Bayless JW (1986) The boundary model: a geographical analysis of design and conservation of nature reserves. Biol Conserv 38:305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shigesada N, Kawasaki K, Teramoto E (1979) Spatial segregation of interacting species. J Theoret Biol 79:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Skellam JG (1973) The formulation and interpretation of mathematical models of diffusionary processes in population biology. In Bartlett MS, Hiorns RW (eds) The mathematical theory of the dynamics of biological populations. Academic Press, New York, pp 63–85Google Scholar
  47. Stamps JA, Buechner M, Krishnan VV (1987) The effects of edge permeability and habitat geometry on emigration from patches of habitat. Am Nat 129:533–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stauffer D (1985) Introduction to percolation theory. Taylor and Francis, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  50. Turchin P (1989) Beyond simple diffusion: models of not-so-simple movement of animals and cells. Comments on Theor Biol T.65–83Google Scholar
  51. Turner MG (1989) Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Ann Rev Ecol Systematics 20:171–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ward JV (1989) The four-dimensional nature of lotie ecosystems. J N Am Benthol Soc 8:2–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Welsh DJA (1977) Percolation and related topics. Science Progress, Oxford 64:65–83Google Scholar
  54. Wiens JA (1981) Scale problems in avian censusing. Studies in Avian Biol 6:513–521Google Scholar
  55. Wiens JA (1985) Vertebrate responses to environmental patchiness in arid and semiarid ecosystems. In Pickett STA, White P (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York, pp 169–193Google Scholar
  56. Wiens JA (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology. Funct Ecol 3:385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wiens JA, Crawford CS, Gosz JR (1985) Boundary dynamics: a conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosystems. Oikos 45:421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wiens JA, Rotenberry JT (1981) Censusing and the evaluation of avian habitat occupancy. Studies in Avian Biol 6:522–532Google Scholar
  59. Wilcove DS (1985) Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds. Ecology 66:1211–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Wiens

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations