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Improving Memory: The Possible Roles of Metamemory

  • Christopher Hertzog

Abstract

Psychologists interested in memory have become increasingly aware of the potential role of metamemory in the acquisition and retention of to-be-remembered information (Cavanaugh & Green, 1990; Cavanaugh, Morton, & Tilse, 1989; Hertzog, Dixon, & Hultsch, 1990a; Schneider & Pressley, 1989). The term metamemory can be defined broadly as cognitions about memory (e.g., Wellman, 1983). As such, it is one aspect of a broader concept of metacognition--or cognitions about all aspects of cognition. Metamemory is actually a label for multiple specific concepts, including knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to memory (Cavanaugh, Kramer, Sinjiott. Camp, & Markley, 1985; Dixon, 1989; Gilewski & Zelinski, 1986; Hultsch, Hertzog, Dixon, & Davidson, 1988). Hultsch et al. (1988) identified four broad aspects of metamemory: (a) factual knowledge about memory tasks and memory processes--defined as knowledge about both how memory functions and the viability of strategic behaviors for tasks requiring memory processes; (b) memory monitoring-defined as awareness of how one typically uses memory as well as the current state of one’s memory system; (c) memory self-efficacy--defined as one’s sense of mastery or capability to use memory effectively in memory-demanding situations; and (d) memory-related affect--defined as a variety of emotional states that may be related to or generated by memory demanding situations, including anxiety, depression, and fatigue.

Keywords

Memory Task Memory Performance Test Anxiety Memory Ability Memory Complaint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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  • Christopher Hertzog

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