This chapter introduces some mathematical concepts used throughout the book. The chapter is meant to provide mathematically explicit definitions of the formal apparatus we use. It may be skipped in a first reading and referred to as needed, although the reader should be warned that for good reason we occasionally use nonstandard definitions of standard notions in graph theory. We assume the reader has some background in finite mathematics and statistics, including correlation analysis, but otherwise this chapter contains all of the mathematical concepts needed in this book. Some of the same mathematical objects defined here are given special interpretations in the next chapter, but here we treat everything entirely formally.
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