Indirect Immunofluoreseence: Localization of the Cytoskeleton

  • C. J. Staiger
Part of the Springer Lab Manuals book series (SLM)


The plant cytoskeleton is composed of two structural elements known as microfilaments and microtubules. Microtubules are 24-nm-diameter hollow fibers constructed from α/β heterodimers of the protein tubulin. Microfilaments (or F-actin) are 5–7-nm-diameter homopolymers of 42 kD actin subunits. These two cytoskeletal components play a major role in a wide variety of cellular processes. For example, cytoplasmic streaming is driven by the mechanochemical enzyme myosin moving along actin microfilaments. The complex events of mitosis, including chromosome segregation and cell plate deposition, utilize two poorly understood microtubule-based structures, the spindle and phragmoplast. Intracellular positioning of nuclei and certain organelles is also dependent on microtubules and microfilaments. For a more detailed analysis of cytoskeletal function, the reader is referred to several excellent reviews and a monograph on this topic (Baskin and Cande 1990; Seagull 1989; Lloyd 1987, 1991).


Meiotic Cell Actin Microfilament Microtubule Array Cell BioI Black Mexican Sweet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baskin TI, Cande WZ (1990) The structure and function of the mitotic spindle in flowering plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41: 277–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burnham, CR (1982) Details of the smear technique for studying chromosomes in maize. In Sheridan WF (ed) Maize for Biological Research, University Press, Grand Forks, ND, pp 107–118Google Scholar
  3. Goodbody KC, Hargreaves AJ, Lloyd CW (1989) On the distribution of microtubule-associated intermediate filament antigens in plant suspension cells. J Cell Sci 93: 427–438Google Scholar
  4. Hogetsu T (1989) The arrangement of microtubules in leaves of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Can J Bot 67: 3506–3512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lloyd CW (1987) The plant cytoskeleton: the impact of fluorescence microscopy. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 38: 119–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lloyd CW (1991) The Cytoskeletal Basis of Plant Growth and Form, Academic Press, London, 322 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Parthasarathy MV, Perdue TD, Witztum A, Alvernaz J (1985) Actin network as a normal component of the cytoskeleton in many vascular plant cells. Am J Bot 72: 1318–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Seagull RW (1989) The plant cytoskeleton. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 8: 131–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Seagull RW, Falconer MM, Weerdenburg CA (1987) Microfilaments: dynamic arrays in higher plant cells. J Cell Biol 104: 995–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sonobe S, Shibaoka H (1989) Cortical fine filaments in higher plant cells visualized by rhodamine-phalloidin after pretreatment with m-maleimidobenzoyl N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Protoplasma 148: 80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Staiger CJ, Cande WZ (1990) Microtubule distribution in dv, a maize meiotic mutant defective in the prophase to metaphase transition. Dev Biol 138: 231–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Staiger CJ, Cande WZ (1991) Microfilament distribution in maize meiotic mutants correlates with microtubule organization. Plant Cell 3: 637–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Traas JA, Burgain S, Dumas de Vaulx R (1989) The organization of the cytoskeleton during meiosis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): microtubules and F-actin are both necessary for coordinated meiotic division. J Cell Sci 92: 541–550Google Scholar
  14. Traas JA, Doonan JH, Rawlins DJ, Shaw PJ, Watts J, Lloyd CW (1987) An actin network is present in the cytoplasm throughout the cell cycle of carrot cells and associates with the dividing nucleus. J Cell Biol 105: 387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang H, Cutler AJ, Saleem M, Fowke LC (1989) Microtubules in maize protoplasts derived from cell suspension cultures: effect of calcium and magnesium ions. Eur J Cell Biol 49: 80–86Google Scholar
  16. Wick SM, Seagull RW, Osborn M, Weber K, Gunning BES (1981) Immunofluorescence microscopy of organized microtubule arrays in structurally stabilized meristematic plant cells. J Cell Biol 89: 685–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Staiger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations