Microbial Enzymatic Degradation and Utilization of Organic Matter

  • Ryszard J. Chróst
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 105)


The most significant contribution of microbial ecology, which altered the principles of a current concept in aquatic science, was the recognition that heterotrophic microorganisms play a dominant role in the cycling of organic and inorganic matter and that a large fraction of primary production is not consumed directly by herbivorous consumers but is transformed into bacterial biomass (Lovell and Konopka 1985, Chróst and Rai 1993; Chapter 5, this volume) and then channeled to phagotrophic microorganisms (Sanders and Porter 1988). The above studies led to the idea of the “microbial loop” (Azam et al. 1983; Chapter 12, this volume) and to the discovery that aquatic food chains include a higher number of trophic levels than hitherto believed (Fenchel 1987, Pomeroy and Wiebe 1988). Therefore, the view of the role of microorganisms in aquatic ecosystems has changed significantly in the last decade. In some respects, the change is sufficiently dramatic to make some authors speak about a “change in paradigm” (Williams 1981). Nowadays we recognize that heterotrophic bacteria not only are the major users of organic carbon but also form microbial food webs that transfer energy more efficiently through the aquatic ecosystems than do classical food chains.


Lake Water Heterotrophic Bacterium Dissolve Organic Matter Phytoplankton Bloom Euphotic Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaronson S (ed) (1981) Chemical Communication at the Microbial Level, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  2. Ammerman JW (1991) Role of ecto-phosphohydrolases in phosphorus regeneration in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 165–186Google Scholar
  3. Ammerman JW, Azam F (1985) Bacterial 5′-nucleotidase in aquatic ecosystems: A novel mechanism of phosphorus regeneration. Science 227:1338–1340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ammerman JW, Azam F (1991a) Bacterial 5′-nucleotidase activity in estuarine and coastal marine waters: Characterization of enzyme activity. Limnol Oceanogr 36: 1427–1436Google Scholar
  5. Ammerman JW, Azam F (1991b) Bacterial 5′-nucleotidase activity in estuarine and coastal marine waters: Role in phosphorus regeneration. Limnol Oceanogr 36:1437–1447Google Scholar
  6. Azam F, Cho BC (1987) Bacterial utilization of organic matter in the sea. In Fletcher M, Gray TRG, Jones JG (eds) Ecology of Microbial Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 261–281Google Scholar
  7. Azam F, Fenchel T, Field JG, Gray JS, Meyer-Reil LA, Thingstad F (1983) The ecological role of water-column microbes in the sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 10:257–263Google Scholar
  8. Barman TE (ed) (1969) Enzyme Handbook, vol II. Springer-Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  9. Belfield A, Goldberg DM (1968) Inhibition of the nucleotidase effect of alkaline phosphatase by ß-glycerophosphate. Nature 219:73–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell RT, Kuparinen J (1984) Assessing phytoplankton and bacterioplankton during early spring in Lake Erken, Sweden. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:1221–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bengis-Garber C (1985) Membrane-bound 5′-nucleotidase in marine luminous bacteria: Biochemical and immunological properties. Can J Microbiol 31:543–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bengtsson G (1988) The impact of dissolved amino acids on protein and cellulose degradation in stream waters. Hydrobiologia 164:97–102Google Scholar
  13. Bergbauer M, Newell S Y (1992) Contribution to lignocellulose degradation and DOC formation from a salt marsh macrophyte by the ascomycete Phaeosphaeria spartinicola. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 86:341–348Google Scholar
  14. Berry RK, Dekker RFH (1984) Induction studies showing evidence of the similarities between an inducible intracellular and extracellular β-d-glucosidase produced by a species of Monilia. FEMS Microbiol Lett 21:309–312Google Scholar
  15. Billen G (1991) Protein degradation in aquatic environments. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 123–143Google Scholar
  16. Billen G, Joins C, Wijnant J, Gillain G (1980) Concentration and microbial utilization of small organic molecules in the Scheldt estuary, the Belgian coastal zone of the North Sea and the English Channel. Estuar Coast Mar Sci 11:279–294Google Scholar
  17. Boethling RS (1975) Regulation of extracellular protease secretion in Pseudomonas maltophilia. J Bacteriol 123:954–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boon PI (1991) Enzyme activities in billabongs of Southeastern Australia. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 286–297Google Scholar
  19. Burney CM (1986) Bacterial utilization of total in situ dissolved carbohydrate in offshore waters. Limnol Oceanogr 31:427–431Google Scholar
  20. Burney CM, Sieburth JMcN (1977) Dissolved carbohydrates in seawater. II. A spectrophotometric procedure for total carbohydrate analysis and polysaccharide estimation. Mar Chem 5:15–28Google Scholar
  21. Campbell DM (1962) Determination of 5′-nucleotidase in blood serum. Biochem J 82:34PGoogle Scholar
  22. Chróst RJ (1981) The composition and bacterial utilization of DOC released by phytoplankton. Kiel Meeresforsch Sonderh 5:325–331Google Scholar
  23. Chróst RJ (1984) Use of 14C-dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) released by algae as a realistic tracer of heterotrophic activity measurements for aquatic bacteria. Arch Hydrobiol Beih Ergeb Limnol 19:207–214Google Scholar
  24. Chróst RJ (1986) Algal-bacterial metabolic coupling in the carbon and phosphorus cycle in lakes. In Megusar F, Gantar M (eds) Perspectives in Microbial Ecology. Slovene Society for Microbiology, Ljubljana, pp 360–366Google Scholar
  25. Chróst RJ (1988) Phosphorus and microplankton development in an eutrophic lake. Acta Microbiol Polon 37:205–225Google Scholar
  26. Chróst RJ (1989) Characterization and significance of β-glucosidase activity in lake water. Limnol Oceanogr 34:660–672Google Scholar
  27. Chróst RJ (1990) Microbial ectoenzymes in aquatic environments. In Overbeck J, Chróst RJ (eds) Aquatic Microbial Ecology; Biochemical and Molecular Approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 47–78Google Scholar
  28. Chróst RJ (1991a) Environmental control of the synthesis and activity of aquatic microbial ectoenzymes. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 29–59Google Scholar
  29. Chróst RJ (ed) (1991b) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Chróst RJ (1991c) Ectoenzymes in aquatic environments: Microbial strategy for substrate supply. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol Verh 24:2597–2600Google Scholar
  31. Chróst RJ (1992) Significance of bacterial ectoenzymes in aquatic environments. Hydrobiologia 243/244:61–70Google Scholar
  32. Chróst RJ, Faust MA (1983) Organic carbon release by phytoplankton: Its composition and utilization by bacterioplankton. J Plankton Res 5:477–493Google Scholar
  33. Chróst RJ, Krambeck HJ (1986) Fluorescence correction for measurements of enzyme activity in natural waters using methylumbelliferyl-substrates. Arch Hydrobiol 106:79–90Google Scholar
  34. Chróst RJ, Overbeck J (1987) Kinetics of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus availability for phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in Lake Plußsee (north German eutrophic lake). Microb Ecol 13:229–248Google Scholar
  35. Chróst RJ, Overbeck J (1990) Substrate-ectoenzyme interaction: Significance of β-glucosidase activity for glucose metabolism by aquatic bacteria. Arch Hydrobiol Beih Ergeb Limnol 34:93–98Google Scholar
  36. Chróst RJ, Rai H (1993) Ectoenzyme activity and bacterial secondary production in nutrient impoverished and enriched freshwater mesocosms. Microb Ecol 25:131–150Google Scholar
  37. Chróst RJ, Siuda W, Halemejko GZ (1984) Longterm studies on alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in a lake with fish-aquaculture in relation to lake eutrophication and phosphorus cycle. Arch Hydrobiol 70:1–32Google Scholar
  38. Chróst RJ, Wcislo R, Halemejko GZ (1986a) Enzymatic decomposition of organic matter by bacteria in an eutrophic lake. Arch Hydrobiol 197:145–165Google Scholar
  39. Chróst RJ, Siuda W, Albrecht D, Overbeck J (1986b) A method for determining of enzymatically hydrolyzable phosphate (EHP) in natural waters. Limnol Oceanogr 32:662–667Google Scholar
  40. Chróst RJ, Overbeck J, Wcislo R (1988) Evaluation of the [3H]thymidine method for estimating bacterial growth rates and production in lake water: Re-examination and methodological comments. Acta Microbiol Pol 37:95–112Google Scholar
  41. Chróst RJ, Münster U, Rai, H, Albrecht D, Witzel KP, Overbeck J (1989) Photosynthetic production and exoenzymatic degradation of organic matter in euphotic zone of an eutrophic lake. J Plankton Res 11:223–242Google Scholar
  42. Cole JJ, Likens GE, Strayer DL (1982) Photosynthetically produced dissolved organic carbon: An important carbon source for planktonic bacteria. Limnol Oceanogr 27:1080–1090Google Scholar
  43. Cotner JB, Wetzel RG (1991a) Bacterial phosphatases from different habitats in a small, hardwater lake. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 187–205Google Scholar
  44. Cotner JB, Wetzel RG (1991b) 5′-Nucleotidase activity in a eutrophic lake and an oligotrophic lake. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:1306–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Coughlan MP (1991) Mechanisms of cellulose degradation by fungi and bacteria. Animal Feed Sci Technol 32:77–100Google Scholar
  46. Coveney MF (1982) Bacterial uptake of photosynthetic carbon from fresh water phytoplankton. Oikos 38:8–29Google Scholar
  47. Coveney MF, Wetzel RG (1992) Effects of nutrients on specific growth rate of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:150–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cowie GL, Hedges JI (1984) Carbohydrate sources in a coastal marine environment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:2075–2087Google Scholar
  49. Cunningham HW, Wetzel RG (1989) Kinetic analysis of protein degradation by a freshwater wetland sediment community. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1963–1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Currie DJ, Kalff J (1984a) A comparison of the abilities of freshwater algae and bacteria to acquire and retain phosphorus. Limnol Oceanogr 29:298–310Google Scholar
  51. Currie DJ, Kalff J (1984b) The relative importance of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton in phosphorus uptake in freshwater. Limnol Oceanogr 29:311–315Google Scholar
  52. Daatselaar MCC, Harder W (1974) Some aspects of the regulation of the production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by a marine bacterium. Arch Hydrobiol 101:21–34Google Scholar
  53. Dixon WJ, Massey FJ (1969) Introduction to Statistical Analysis. McGraw-Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Dixon M, Webb EC (ed) (1979) Enzymes. Longman Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Ejsmont-Karabin J (1984) Phosphorus and nitrogen excretion by zooplankton (rotifers and crustaceans) in relation to individual body weights of animals, ambient temperature and presence or absence of food. Ekol Pol 32:3–42Google Scholar
  56. Fenchel T (1987) Ecology of Protozoa. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Fraenkel DG, Vinopal RT (1973) Carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 27:69–100Google Scholar
  58. Francko DA, Heath RT (1979) Functionally distinct classes of complex phosphorus compounds in lake water. Limnol Oceanogr 24:463–473Google Scholar
  59. Freer SN, Detroy RW (1985) Regulation of β-1–4-glucosidase expression by Candida wickerhamii. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:152–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gage MA, Gorham E (1985) Alkaline phosphatase activity and cellular phosphorus as an index of the phosphorus status of phytoplankton in Minnesota lakes. Freshwater Biology 15:227–233Google Scholar
  61. Gajewski A, Chróst RJ, Siuda W (1993) Bacterial lipolytic activity in a eutrophic lake. Arch Hydrobiol 128:107–126Google Scholar
  62. Gardner WS, Chandler JF, Laird GA, Scavia D (1986) Microbial response to amino acid additions in Lake Michigan: Grazer control and substrate limitation of bacterial populations. J Great Lakes Res 12:161–174Google Scholar
  63. Glenn AR (1976) Production of extracellular proteins by bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 30:41–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Golterman HL (ed) (1977) Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water. Junk, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  65. Hackett CJ, Chen KC (1978) Quantitative isolation of native chitin from resistant structures of Sordaria and Ascaris species. Anal Biochem 89:487–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hackman RH, Goldberg M (1981) A method for determination of microgram amounts of chitin in arthropod cuticles. Anal Biochem 110:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hagström A, Ammerman JW, Henrichs S, Azam F (1984) Bacterioplankton growth in seawater. 2. Organic matter utilization during steady-state growth in seawater cultures. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 18:41–48Google Scholar
  68. Hagström A, Azam F, Andersson A, Wikner J, Rassoulzadegan F (1988) Microbial loop in an oligotrophic pelagic marine ecosystem: Possible roles of cyanobacteria and nannoflagellates in the organic fluxes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 49:171–178Google Scholar
  69. Halemejko GZ, Chróst RJ (1984) The role of phosphatases in phosphorus mineralization during decomposition of lake phytoplankton blooms. Arch Hydrobiol 101:489–502Google Scholar
  70. Halemejko GZ, Chróst RJ (1986) Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteinaceous and dissolved material in an eutrophic lake. Arch Hydrobiol 107:1–21Google Scholar
  71. Healey FP, Hendzel LL (1980) Physiological indicators of nutrient deficiency in lake phytoplankton. Can J Fish Aqua Sci 37:442–453Google Scholar
  72. Heath RT, Cooke GD (1975) The significance of alkaline phosphatase in a eutrophic lake. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol Verh 19:959–965Google Scholar
  73. Heinz F, Haeckel R (1984) 5′-Nucleotidase. UV-method. In Bergmeyer J, Graßl M (eds) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, vol IV. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 106–119Google Scholar
  74. Hodson RE, Maccubbin AE, Pomeroy LR (1981a) Dissolved adenosine triphosphate utilization by free-living and attached bacterioplankton. Mar Biol 64:43–51Google Scholar
  75. Hodson, RE, Azam, F, Carlucci AF, Fuhrman JA, Karl DM, Holm-Hansen O (1981b) Microbial uptake of dissolved organic matter in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Mar Biol 61:89–94Google Scholar
  76. Holm-Hansen O (1984) Composition and nutritional mode of nanoplankton. Arch Hydrobiol Beih Ergeb Limnol 19:125–129Google Scholar
  77. Hooper FF (1973) Origin and fate of organic phosphorus compounds in aquatic systems. In Griffith EJ, Beeton A, Spencer JM, Mitchell DT (eds) Environmental Phosphorus Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 834–865Google Scholar
  78. Hoppe HG (1983) Significance of exoenzymatic activities in the ecology of brackish water: Measurements by means of methylumbelliferyl-substrates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 11:299–308Google Scholar
  79. Hoppe HG (1986) Degradation in sea water. In Rehm HJ, Reed G (eds) Biotechnology, vol 8. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, pp 453–474Google Scholar
  80. Hoppe HG (1991) Microbial extracellular enzyme activity: A new key parameter in aquatic ecology. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 60–83Google Scholar
  81. Hoppe HG, Kim SJ, Gocke K (1988) Microbial decomposition in aquatic environments: Combined processes of extracellular enzyme activity and substrate uptake. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:784–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hoppe HG, Ducklow H, Karrasch B (1993) Evidence for dependency of bacterial growth on enzymatic hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in the mesopelagic ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 93:277–283Google Scholar
  83. Hutchinson GE (1957) A Treatise on Limnology, vol 1. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Jacobsen TR, Azam F (1985) Role of bacteria in copepod fecal pellet decomposition: Colonization, growth rates and mineralization. Bull Amar Sci 35:495–502Google Scholar
  85. Jacobsen TR, Rai H (1988) Determination of aminopeptidase activity in lakewater by a short term kinetic assay and its application in two lakes of differing eutrophication. Arch Hydrobiol 113:359–370Google Scholar
  86. Jacobsen TR, Rai H (1991) Aminopeptidase activity in lakes of differing eutrophication. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 155–164Google Scholar
  87. Jeuniaux C, Voss-Foucart MF, Bussers JC (1982) Preliminary results of chitin biomass in some benthic marine biocenoses. In Hirano S, Tokura S (eds) Chitin and Chitosan. Tottori University Press, Tottori, pp 200–204Google Scholar
  88. Jones SE, Lock MA (1991) Peptidase activity in river biofilms by product analysis. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 144–154Google Scholar
  89. Jørgensen NOG, Søndergaard M (1984) Are dissolved free amino acids free? Microb Ecol 10:301–316Google Scholar
  90. Jumars PA, Penry DL, Baross JA, Perry MJ, Frost BW (1989) Closing the microbial loop: Dissolved carbon pathway to heterotrophic bacteria from incomplete ingestion, digestion and absorption in animals. Deep Sea Res 36:483–495Google Scholar
  91. Jürgens K, Güde H (1990) Incorporation and release of phosphorus by planktonic bacteria and phagotrophic flagellates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 59:271–284Google Scholar
  92. Karl DM, Bailiff MD (1989) The measurement and distribution of dissolved nucleic acids in aquatic environments. Limnol Oceanogr 34:543–558Google Scholar
  93. Karl DM, Craven DB (1980) Effects of alkaline phosphatase activity on nucleotide measurements in aquatic microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 40:549–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Keil RG, Kirchman DL (1992) Bacterial hydrolysis of protein and methylated protein and its implications for studies of protein degradation in aquatic systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1374–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. King GM (1986) Characterization of β-glucosidase activity in intertidal marine sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kobori H, Taga N (1979) Phosphatase activity and its role in the mineralization of organic phosphorus in coastal seawater. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 36:23–39Google Scholar
  97. Kreutzberg GW, Reddington M, Zimmermann H (eds) (1986) Cellular Biology of Ectoenzymes. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  98. Law BA (1980) Transport and utilization of proteins by bacteria. In Payne JW (ed) Microorganisms and Nitrogen Sources. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 381–409Google Scholar
  99. Lean DRS, Nalewajko C (1976) Phosphorus uptake and excretion by freshwater algae. J Fish Res Board Can 33:1312–1323Google Scholar
  100. Lee S, Fuhrman JA (1987) Relationships between biovolume and biomass of naturally derived marine bacterioplankton. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:1298–1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Litchfield CD, Prescott JM (1976) Regulation of proteolytic enzyme production by Aeromonas proteolytica. II. Extracellular aminopeptidase. Can J Microbiol 16:23–27Google Scholar
  102. Ljungdahl LG, Eriksson KE (1985) Ecology of microbial cellulose degradation. In Marshall KC (ed) Advances in Microbial Ecology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 237–299Google Scholar
  103. Lovell CR, Konopka A (1985) Primary and bacterial production in two dimictic Indiana lakes. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Maeda M, Taga N (1973) Deoxiribonuclease activity in seawater and sediment. Mar Biol 20:58–63Google Scholar
  105. Martinez J, Azam F (1993) Periplasmic aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities in a marine bacterium: Implications for substrate processing in the sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:89–97Google Scholar
  106. Maruyama A, Oda M, Higashihara T (1993) Abundance of virus-sized non-DNase-digestible DNA (coated DNA) in eutrophic seawater. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:712–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mayer LM (1989) Extracellular proteolytic enzyme activity in sediments of an intertidal mudflat. Limnol Oceanogr 34:973–981Google Scholar
  108. McGrath SM, Sullivan CW (1981) Community metabolism of adenylates by microheterotrophs from the Los Angeles Harbor and Southern California coastal waters. Mar Biol 62:217–226Google Scholar
  109. Meyer-Reil LA (1987) Seasonal and spatial distribution of extracellular enzymatic activities and microbial incorporation of dissolved organic substrates in marine sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:1748–1755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Meyer-Reil LA, Köster M (1992) Microbial life in pelagic sediments: The impact of environmental parameters on enzymatic degradation of organic material. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 81:65–72Google Scholar
  111. Münster U (1984) Distribution, dynamics and structure of free dissolved carbohydrates in Plußsee, a north German eutrophic lake. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol Verh 22:929–935Google Scholar
  112. Münster U (1991) Extracellular enzyme activity in eutrophic and polyhumic lakes. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 96–122Google Scholar
  113. Münster U, Chróst RJ (1990) Origin, composition and microbial utilization of dissolved organic matter. In Overbeck J, Chróst RJ (eds) Aquatic Microbial Ecology: Biochemical and Molecular Approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 8–46Google Scholar
  114. Murray AW (1971) The biological significance of purine salvage. Annu Rev Biochem 50:811–826Google Scholar
  115. Nagata T, Kirchman DL (1991) Release of dissolved free and combined amino acids by bacteriovorous marine flagellates. Limnol Oceanogr 36:433–443Google Scholar
  116. Nagata T, Kirchman DL (1992) Release of macromolecular organic complexes by heterotrophic marine flagellates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 83:233–240Google Scholar
  117. Ochiai M, Ukiya T (1981) Seasonal variations of dissolved organic constituents in Lake Nakanuma during March and November 1979. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol Verh 21:682–687Google Scholar
  118. Overbeck J (1961) Die Phosphatasen von Scenedesmus quadricauda und ihre ökologische Bedeutung. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol Verh 14:226–231Google Scholar
  119. Overbeck J (1962) Untersuchungen zum Phosphathaushalt von Grünalgen. II. Die Verwertung von Pyrophosphat und organisch gebundenen Phosphaten und ihre Beziehung zu den Phosphatasen von Scenedesmus quardicauda (Turp.) Breb Arch Hydrobiol 58:281–308Google Scholar
  120. Overbeck J (1979) Studies on heterotrophic functions and glucose metabolism of microplankton in Plußsee. Arch Hydrobiol Beih Ergeb Limnol 13:56–76Google Scholar
  121. Overbeck J, Babenzien HD (1963) Nachweis von freien Phosphatasen, Amylase und Saccharase im Wasser eines Teiches. Naturwissenschaften 50:571–572Google Scholar
  122. Paul JH, Jeffrey WH, DeFlaun MF (1987) Dynamics of extracellular DNA in the marine environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:170–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Paul JH, DeFlaun MF, Jeffrey WH (1988) Mechanisms of DNA utilization by estuarine microbial populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:1682–1688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Paul JH, Jiang SC, Rose JB (1991) Concentration of viruses and dissolved DNA from aquatic environments by vortex flow filtration. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2197–2204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Payne JW (1980) Transport and utilization of peptides by bacteria. In Payne JW (ed) Microorganisms and Nitrogen Sources. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 211–256Google Scholar
  126. Perry MJ (1972) Alkaline phosphatase activity in subtropical Central North Pacific waters using a sensitive fluorometric method. Mar Biol 15:113–119Google Scholar
  127. Pettersson K (1980) Alkaline phosphatase activity and algal surplus phosphorus as phosphorus-deficiency indicators in Lake Erken. Arch Hydrobiol 89:54–87Google Scholar
  128. Pieczyńska E (1976) Selected Problems of Lake Littoral Ecology. Warsaw University Press, WarsawGoogle Scholar
  129. Pomeroy LR, Wiebe WJ (1988) Energetics of microbial food webs. Hydrobiologia 159:7–18Google Scholar
  130. Proctor LM, Fuhrman JA (1991) Roles of viral infection in organic particle flux. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 69:133–142Google Scholar
  131. Proctor LM, Fuhrman JA (1992) Mortality of marine bacteria in response to enrichments of the virus size fraction from seawater. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 87:283–293Google Scholar
  132. Rego VJ, Billen G, Fontigny A, Somville M (1985) Free and attached proteolytic activity in water environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 21:245–249Google Scholar
  133. Reichardt W, Overbeck J, Steubing L (1967) Free dissolved enzymes in lake waters. Nature 216:1345–1347Google Scholar
  134. Riley GA (1970) Particulate matter in seawater. Adv Mar Biol 8:1–118Google Scholar
  135. Rogers HJ (1961) The dissimilation of high molecular weight organic substrates. In Gunsalus IC, Stanier RY (eds) The Bacteria, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 261–318Google Scholar
  136. Rogers HJ (1979) The function of bacterial autolysins. In Berkeley RCW (ed) Microbial Polysaccharides and Polysaccharases. Academic Press, London, pp 237–268Google Scholar
  137. Rosso AL, Azam F (1987) Proteolytic activity in coastal oceanic waters: Depth distribution and relationship to bacterial populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 41:231–240Google Scholar
  138. Sanders RW, Porter KG (1988) Phagotrophic phytoflagellates. In Marshall KC (ed) Advances in Microbial Ecology, vol 10. Plenum Press, New York, pp 167–192Google Scholar
  139. Siuda W (1984) Phosphatases and their role in organic phosphorus transformation in natural waters. A review. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 31:207–233Google Scholar
  140. Siuda W, Chróst RJ (1987) The relationship between alkaline phosphatase (APA) activity and phosphate availability for phytoplankton and bacteria in eutrophic lakes. Acta Microbiol Pol 36:247–257Google Scholar
  141. Siuda W, Wcislo R, Chróst RJ (1991) Composition and bacterial utilization of photosynthetically produced organic matter in an eutrophic lake. Arch Hydrobiol 121:473–484Google Scholar
  142. Smith MH, Gold MH (1979) Phanerochaete chrysosporium β-glucosidases: Induction cellular location, and physical characterization. Appl Environ Microbiol 37:938–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Smith EL, Hill RL (1960) Leucine aminopeptidase. In Boyer PD, Lardy H, Myrback K (eds) The Enzymes, vol 4. Academic Press, London, pp 37–62Google Scholar
  144. Smith RE, Kalff J (1981) The effect of phosphorus limitation on algal growth rates: Evidence from alkaline phosphatase. Can J Fish Aqua Sci 38:1421–1427Google Scholar
  145. Smucker RA, Dawson R (1986) Products of photosynthesis by marine phytoplankton: Chitin in TCA “protein” precipitates. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 104:143–152Google Scholar
  146. Smucker RA, Kim CK (1991) Chitinase activity in estuarine waters. In Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 249–269Google Scholar
  147. Solorzano L (1978) Soluble fractions of phosphorus compounds and alkaline phosphatase activity in Loch Creran and Loch Etire, Scotland. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 34:227–232Google Scholar
  148. Somville M (1984) Measurement and study of substrate specificity of exoglucosidase activity in eutrophic water. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:1181–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Steinberg C, Münster U (1985) Geochemistry and ecological role of humic substances in lakewater. In Aiken GR, McKnight DM, Wershaw RL, McCarthy P (eds) Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment, and Water. Geochemistry, Isolation and Characterization. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 105–145Google Scholar
  150. Sterner RW (1989) The role of grazers in phytoplankton succession. In Sommer U (ed) Plankton Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 124–136Google Scholar
  151. Stewart AL, Wetzel RG (1982) Phytoplankton contribution to alkaline phosphatase activity. Arch Hydrobiol 93:265–271Google Scholar
  152. Strickland JDH, Parsons TR (1972) A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis. Bull Fish Res Bd Can 167:1–462Google Scholar
  153. Strobel HJ, Russell JB (1987) Regulation of β-glucosidase in Bacteroides ruminicola by a different mechanism: Growth rate-dependent derepression. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:2505–2510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Tamminen T (1989) Dissolved organic phosphorus regeneration by bacterioplankton: 5′-Nucleotidase activity and subsequent phosphate uptake in a mesocosm enrichment experiment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 58:89–100Google Scholar
  155. Turk V, Rehnstam AS, Lundberg E, Hagström Å (1992) Release of bacterial DNA by marine nanoflagellates, an intermediate step in phosphorus regeneration. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:3744–3750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Udenfriens S, Stein S, Böhlen P, Dairman W, Leimgruber W, Weigele M (1972) Fluorescamine: A reagent for assay of amino acids, peptides, proteins, and primary amines in the picomole range. Science 178:871–872.Google Scholar
  157. Van Husen N, Gerlach, U (1984) 5′-Nucleotidase. Colorimetrie method. In Bergmeyer J, Graßl M (eds) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, vol IV. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, ppc 113–119Google Scholar
  158. Vincent WV (1981) Rapid physiological assays for nutrient demand by the plankton. II. Phosphorus. J Plankton Res 3:699–710Google Scholar
  159. Wetzel RG, Likens GE (1979) Limnological Analyses. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  160. Williams PJLeB (1981) Incorporation of microheterotrophic processes into the classical paradigm of the planktonic food web. Kieler Meeresforsch Sonder 5:1–28Google Scholar
  161. Willimas PM (1986) Chemistry of the dissolved and particulate phases in the water column. In Eppley RW (ed) Plankton Dynamics of the Southern California Bight. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 645–682Google Scholar
  162. Wynne D, Gophen M (1981) Phosphatase activity in freshwater zooplankton. Oikos 37:369–376Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryszard J. Chróst

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations