Advertisement

Vectors of Plant Parasites of the Genus Phytomonas (Protozoa, Zoomastigophorea, Kinetoplastida)

  • Erney P. Camargo
  • Franklin G. Wallace
Part of the Advances in Disease Vector Research book series (VECTOR, volume 10)

Abstract

The occurrence of flagellated protozoa as internal parasites in plants was first reported by Lafont in 1909 who found them in the latex of Euphorbia pilulifera in Mauritius (78). From the start, hemipterans were suspected of transmitting these plant parasites. However, as described in this chapter, only in a few instances the vector role of phytophagous bugs has been experimentally evidenced.

Keywords

Salivary Gland Plant Parasite Sieve Tube Coconut Palm Laticiferous Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aders, W.M. 1909. Herpetomonas aspongopi. Parasitology 2:202–207.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alva, Z.B. 1956. Flagelados en el latex de la Jatropha macrantha (Huanarpo hembra). Arch. Per. Patol. Clin. 10:1–12.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antonucci, A. 1941. Sopra un nuovo Leptomonas degli emitteri Legeidi (Leptomonas pierantonii n. sp.). Arch. Zool. Ital. 29:63–75.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Archibald, R.G. 1911. Herpetomonas lygaei considered from a protozoological and medical aspect. Fourth Report Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories, Karthoum, Bailliére, Tindall, and Cox, London, pp. 179–184.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asgarali, J., and Ramkalup, P. 1985. Study of Lincus sp. (Pentatomidae) as a possible vector of hartrot in coconut. Surin. Landb. 33:56–61.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Attias, M., Roitman, I., Camargo, E.P., Dollet, M., and Souza, W. 1988. Comparative analysis of the fine structure of four isolates of trypanosomatids of the genus. Phytomonas. J. Protozool. 35:365–370.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Attias, M., and Souza, W. 1986. Axenic cultivation and ultrastructural study of a Phytomonas sp. isolated from the milkweed plant. Euphorbia hyssopifolia. J. Protozool. 33:84–87.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ayala, S.C., Quintero, O.B., and Barreto, P. 1974. Tripanosomátideos de plantas laticiferas y sus insectos transmisores en Colombia y Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 23:5–15.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barnett, H.C. 1946. The relation of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.) to flagellosis in laticiferous plants. Thesis, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bensaude, M. 1925. Flagellates in plants: a review of foreign literature. Phytopathology 15:273–281.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bezerra, J.L., and Figueiredo, J.M. 1982. Ocorrência de Phytomonas staheli McGhee et McGhee em coqueiro (Cocos nucifera) no estado da Bahia, Brasil. Fitopatol. Bras. 7:139–143.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blacklock, B. 1923. The aetiology of Kala-Azar and tropical sore. Lancet 205:273–274.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blakely, N. 1980. Divergence in seed resource use among neotropical milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus). Oikos 35:8–15.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bouet, G., and Roubaud, E. 1911. Sur la présence au Dahomey et le mode de transmission de Leptomonas davidi Lafont, flagellé parasite des Euphorbiacées. C.R. Soc. Biol. 70:55–57.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Camargo, E.P., Coelho, J.A., and Moraes, G. 1978. Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania spp. and Leptomonas spp.: Enzymes of ornithine-arginine metabolism. Exp. Parasitol. 46:141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Camargo, E.P., Kastelein, P., and Roitman, I. 1990. Trypanosomatid parasites of plants (Phytomonas). Parasitol. Today 6:22–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Camargo, E.P., Sbravate, C., Teixeira, M.M.G., Uliana, S., Soares, M., Affonso, H., and Floeter-Winter, L. 1992. Ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and synthetic oligonucleotide probing in the identification of genera of lower trypanosomatids. J. Parasitol. 78:40–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Camargo, E.P., Silva, S., Roitman, I., Souza, W., Jankevicius, J.V., and Dollet, M. 1987. Enzymes of ornithine-arginine metabolism in trypanosomatids of the genus. Phytomonas. J. Protozool. 34:439–441.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carter, R.M. 1911. Non-ulcerating oriental sore: The cultural characteristics of the parasite as compared with a new similar parasite in Erythesina fullo (Thunb.), a pentatomid bug. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 5:15–34.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carter, W. 1973. Insects in Relation to Plant Diseases, 2nd ed. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chaplin, S.I. 1973. Reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of Oncopeltus (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae) in the tropics. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66:997–1000.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chenon, R.D. 1984. Recherches sur le genre Lincus Stal, Hemiptera Pentatomidae Discocephalinae, et son rôle éventuel dans la transmission de la Marchitez du palmier à huile et du Hart-Rot du cocotier. Oleagineux 39:1–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Conchon, I., Campaner, M., Sbravate, C., and Camargo, E.P. 1989. Trypanosomatids, other than Phytomonas spp., isolated and cultured from fruit. J. Protozool. 36:412–414.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Leeuw, G.T.N., and Kastelein, P. 1987. Observation of flagellate protozoa (Phytomonas sp.) in Cocos nucifera, Cecropia palmata and Euphorbia hirta. J. Phytopathol. 120:25–30.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dollet, M. 1982. Les maladies des palmiers et cocotiers à protozoaires flagellés intraphloémiques en Amérique Latine (Phy tomonas sp., Trypanosomatidae). Oleagineux 37:9–12.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dollet, M. 1984. Plant diseases caused by flagellate protozoa (Phytomonas). Ann. Rev. Phytopathol 22:115–132.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dollet, M., Cambrony, D., and Gargani, D. 1982. Culture axénique in vitro de Phytomonas sp. (Trypanosomatidae) d’euphorbe transmis par Stenocephalus agilis Scop. (Coreide). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. III 295:547–550.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dollet, M., Gargani, D., Cambrony, D., and Dzido, J.L. 1983. Observations of flagellate Protozoa (Phytomonas sp.) in the xylem of Euphorbia lasiocarpa in Ecuador. Can. J. Bot. 61:237–240.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dollet, M., Giannotti, J., and Ollagnier, M. 1977. Observation de protozoaires flagellés dans les tubes criblés de palmiers à huile malades. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. D 284:643–645.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dolling, W.R. 1984. Pentatomid bugs (Hemiptera) that transmit a flagellate disease of cultivated palms in South America. Bull. Entomol. Res. 74: 473–476.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Donovan, C. 1909. Kalaazar in Madras, especialy with regard to its connexion with the dog and the bug (Conorrhinus). Lancet Nov. 20: 1195–1196.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duffey, S.S., and Scudder, G.G.E. 1972. Cardiac glycosides in North American Asclepiadaceae, a basis for unpalatability in brightly colored Hemiptera and Coleoptera. J. Insect Physiol. 18:63–78.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dussourd, D.E., and Eisner, T. 1987. Vein cutting behavior:insect counterploy to the latex defense of plants. Science 237:898–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fantham, H.B. 1925. Some parasitic Protozoa found in South Africa—VIII. S. Afric. J. Sci. 22:346–354.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fantham, H.B. 1926. Some flagellates in plants. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:347–348.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Figueiredo, E.N., Yoshida, N., Roitman, I., and Camargo, E.P. 1978. Enzymes of the ornithine-arginine metabolism in the genus. Crithidia. J. Protozool. 25:546–549.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fiorini, J.E., Silva, F.P.M., Brasil, R.P., Roitman, I., Angluster, J., and Souza, W. 1986. Detection of trypanosomatids in Solanum gilo, and Solanum lycopersicum in Alienas M.G. Brazil. Mem. Inst. O. Cruz 81 (Suppl.):33.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Sur un flagellé nouveau du latex de deux apocynées. Bull Soc. Pathol. Exot. 15:109–113.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Sur un flagellé de Lygaeidae (Crithidia oxycareni n. sp.). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 15:113–116.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Sur un trypanosome du latex de deux espèces d’euphorbes. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 15:18–23.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Flagellés et amibes d’une urticacée éxotique. Ficus parietalis. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 15:399–405.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Nouvelles recherches sur les trypanosomes des euphorbes et sur leur culture. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 15:299–303.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Au sujet de la culture de l’Herpetomonas du Pyrrochoris apterus. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 15:163–165.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Franchini, G. 1922. Flagellose du chou et des punaises du chou. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 22:164–165.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franchini, G. 1923. Sur les protozoaires des plantes. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 37:879–885.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Franchini, G. 1923. Nouvelles recherches sur les protozoaires des plantes à latex. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 16:655–659.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Franchini, G. 1923. Sur un flagellé d’une Asclepiadacée (Araujia angustifolia). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 16:652–655.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Franchini, G. 1923. Sur un flagellé particulier d’une urticacée (Ficus benjamina). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 16:650–652.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Franchini, G. 1931. Su di flagellato speciale des lattice del Ficus hochstetteri (Mig.) A. Rich. Arch. Ital Sci. Med. Col. 12:637–643.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    França, C. 1914. La flagellose des Euphorbes. Arch. Protistenk. 34:108–132.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    França, C. 1919. L’insect transmetteur de Leptomonas davidi. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 12:513–514.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    França, C. 1920. La flagellose des euphorbes II. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 34:432–465.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    França, C. 1921. Sur deux phytoflagellés. (L. elmassiani et L. bordasi sp.n.). Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 1:245–254.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Freymuller, E., Milder, R., Jankevicius, J.V., Jankevicius, S.I., and Camargo, E.P. 1990. Ultrastructural studies on the trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens in the salivary glands of a phytophagous hemipteran. J. Protozool. 37:225–229.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Galli-Valerio, B. 1914. Notes de parasitologic et de technique parasitologique. Z. Bakter. Parasitenk. Infektion. 75:46–53.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Galli-Valerio, B. 1920. Le cycle evolutif probable de l’Herpetomonas pyhrrhocoris Zotta et Galli-Valerio (Note préalable). Schweiz. Med. Wochenschrift 21:401–402.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gibbs, A.J. 1950. Crithidia familiaris n.sp. in Cenaeus carnifex Fabr. (Hemiptera). Parasitology 40:322–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gibbs, A.J. 1951. Crithidia sandoni sp.nov., in Holopterna alata (Hemiptera). J. Parasitol 37:587–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gibbs, A.J. 1951. Leptomonas capsularis n.sp. and other flagellates parasitic in Cletus ochraceus (Hemiptera). Parasitology 41:128–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gibbs, A.J. 1957. Leptomonas serpens n.sp., parasitic in the digestive tract and salivary glands of Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae) and in the sap of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and other plants. J. Parasitol 47:297–303.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Glasgow, H. 1914. The gastric caeca and the caecal bacteria of Heteroptera. Biol. Bull, Marine Biol. Lab. Woods Hole 26:101–155.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hanson, W.L., and McGhee, R.B. 1961. The biology and morphology of Crithidia acanthocephali n.sp., Leptomonas leptoglossi n.sp. and Blasto-crithidia euchisti n.sp. J. Protozool. 8:200–204.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hanson, W.L., McGhee, R.B., and Blake, J.D. 1966. Experimental infection of various latex plants of the family Asclepiadaceae with Phytomonas elmassiani. J. Protozool. 13:324–327.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Harvey, R.B., and Lee, S.B. 1943. Flagellates of laticiferous plants. Plant Physiol 18:633–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hewitt, R. 1940. Phytomonad flagellates from mexican milkweeds. J. Parasitol 26:160.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hindle, E., and Lewis, M.A. 1912. Note on “Crithidia” cleti n.sp., parasitic in the alimentary canal of Cletus varius, Dall. Parasitology 5:109–113.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Holmes, F.O. 1924. Herpetomonad flagellates in the lates of milkweed in Maryland. Phytopathology 14:146–151.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Holmes, F.O. 1925. The relationship of Herpetomonas elmassiani (Migone) to its plant and insect hosts. Biol. Bull., Marine Biol. Lab. Woods Hole 49:323–337.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Holmes, F.O. 1931. Herpetomonas bancrofti n.sp. from the latex of a ficus in queensland. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. Plant Res. 3:375–384.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Holmes, F.O. 1931. Protozoa of latex plants. In R. Hegner and J. Andrews, eds., Problems and Methods of Research in Protozoology. MacMillan, New York, pp. 257–275.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jankevicius, J.V., Jankevicius, S.I., Campaner, M., Conehon, I., Maeda, L.A., Teixeira, M.M.G., Freymuller, E., and Camargo, E.P. 1989. Life cycle and culturing of Phytomonas serpens (Gibbs), a Trypanosomatid parasite of tomatoes. J. Protozool. 36:265–271.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jankevicius, S.I., Jankevicius, J.V., Menezes, M.C.M.D., Lima, H., and Menezes, J.R. 1987. Presence of Protozoa of the genus Phytomonas in leguminous crops. Fitopatol. Bras. 12:152.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jankevicius, S.I., Jankevicius, J.V., Menezes, M.C.M.D., Torrezan, H.C., Menezes, J.R., and Rezende, M.I. 1987. Phytomonas sp. found in leguminous crops. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 82 (Suppl.):35.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kastelein, P. 1985. Transmission of Phytomonas sp. (Trypanosomatidae) by the bug Edessa loxdali (Pentatomidae). Surin. Landb. 33:62–64.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kastelein, P., and Camargo, E.P. 1990. Trypanosomatid protozoa in fruit of Solanaceae in Southeastern Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 85:413–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kastelein, P., and Parsadi, M. 1984. Observations on cultures of the Protozoa Phytomonas sp. (Trypanosomatidae) associated with the laticiferous Allamanda cathartica L. (Apocynaceae). Surin. Landb. 32:85–89.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kastelein, P., and Parsadi, M. 1988. Axenic cultivation of Phytomonas (Trypanosomatidae) associated with laticiferous plants in Suriname. J. Protozool. 35:533–536.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lafont, A. 1909. Sur la présence d’un Leptomonas, parasite de la classe des flagellés dans le latex de l’Euphorbia pilulifera. C.R. Soc. Biol. 66:1011–1013.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lafont, A. 1910. Sur la présence d’un Leptomonas, parasite de la classe des flagellés, dans le latex de trois euphorbiacées. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 24:205–219.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lafont, A. 1911. Sur la transmission du Leptomonas, davidi des euphorbes par un hémiptère, Nysius euphorbiae. C.R. Soc. Biol. 70:58–59.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Leger, A. 1911. Présence de Leptomonas, davidi Lafont dans l’Euphorbia pilulifera du Haut-Senegal et Niger. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 4:626–627.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Léger, L., and Duboscq, O. 1910. Selenococcidium intermedium Lég. et Dub. et la systematique des sporozoaires. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. 40:187–238.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lipa, J.J. 1958. Pierwotniaki zyjace w roslinach (Protozoan living in plants). Wszechswiat 1:13–15.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lipa, J.J. 1966. Blastocrithidia raabei sp.n., a flagellate parasite of Mesocerus marginatus L. (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Acta Protozool. 4:19–23.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lipa, J.J. 1968. Some observations on flagellate parasites of hemipterans Corimelaena, Euchistus, Gerris, Leptocoris and Oncopeltus in the United States. Acta Protozool. 6:58–69.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lipa, J.J., and Steinhaus, E.A. 1962. Further report on identifications of Protozoa pathogenic for insects. Acta Parasitol. Polonica 10:165–175.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Louise, C., Dollet, M., and Mariau, D. 1986. Recherches sur le hartrot du cocotier, maladie à Phytomonas (Trypanosomatidae) et sur son vécteur Lincus sp. (Pentatomidae) en Guyane. Oleagineux 41:437–449.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lutz, A., Araujo, H.C.S., and Fonseca Filho, O. 1918. Viagem cientifica no rio Paraná e a Assunción com volta por Buenos Aires, Montevideo e Rio Grande. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 10:104–173.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    McCoy, R.E., and Martinez-Lopez, G. 1982. Phytomonas staheli associated with coconut and oil palm diseases in Colombia. Plant Dis. 66:675–677.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    McCulloch, I. 1915. An outline of the morphology and life history of Crithidia leptocoridis, sp.nov. Univ. Calif. Public. Zool. 16:1–22.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    McCulloch, I. 1917. Crithidia euryophthalmi, sp.nov., from the hemipteran bug, Euryophthalmus convivus Stål. Univ. Calif. Public. Zool. 18:75–88.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    McGhee, R.B. 1959. The infection of avian embryos with Crithidia species and Leishmania tarentolae. J. Infect. Dis. 105:18–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    McGhee, R.B., and Cosgrove, W.B. 1980. Biology and physiology of the lower Trypanosomatidae. Microbiol. Rev. 44:140–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McGhee, R.B., and Hanson, W.L. 1962. Growth and reproduction of Leptomonas oncopelti in the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. J. Protozool. 9:488–493.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    McGhee, R.B., and Hanson, W.L. 1964. Comparison of the life cycle of Leptomonas oncopelti and Phytomonas elmassiani. J. Protozool. 11:555–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McGhee, R.B., Hanson, W.L., and Schmittner, S. 1969. Isolation, cloning and determination of biologic characteristics of five new species of Crithidia. J. Protozool. 16:514–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    McGhee, R.B., and McGhee, A.H. 1971. The relation of migration of Oncopeltus fasciatus to distribution of Phytomonas elmassiani in the eastern United States. J. Protozool. 18:344–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    McGhee, R.B., and McGhee, A.H. 1979. Biology and structure of Phytomonas staheli sp.n., a trypanosomatid located in sieve tubes of coconut and oil palms. J. Protozool. 26:348–351.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    McGhee, R.B., and Posteli, F.J. 1982. Transmission of the trypanosomatid flagellate Phytomonas davidi, a symbiont of the Euphorbiaceae, by the hemipteran bug Pachybrachius bilobata scutellatus. J. Protozool. 29:445–448.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Menara, A., Dollet, M., Gargani, D., and Louise, C. 1988. Culture in vitro sur cellules d’invertebrés, des Phytomonas sp. (Trypanosomatidae) associés au hartrot, maladie du cocotier. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 307:597–602.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Migone, L.E. 1916. Un nouveau flagellé des plants: Leptomonas elmassiani. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 9:356–359.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Miles, P.W. 1959. The salivary secretions of a plant sucking bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). I. The types of secretion and their role during feeding. J. Insect Physiol. 3:243–255.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Miles, P.W. 1960. The salivary secretions of a plant sucking bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). III. Origins in the salivary gland. J. Insect Physiol. 4:271–282.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Morisita, T. 1954. Notes of the haemoflagellate (Trypanosomidae; Crithidia) from the bug (Erythesina fullo). Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 7:135–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Noc, F., and Stevenel, L. 1911. Présence à Martinique de Leptomonas davidi Lafont. Bull. Soc. Pathol Exot. 4:461–464.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Noguchi, H., and Tilden, E.B. 1926. Comparative studies of Herpetomonads and Leishmanias. J. Exp. Med. 44:307–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Packchanian, A. 1957. The isolation and cultivation of hemoflagellates in pure culture from six species of insects. Texas Rep. Biol. Med. 15:399–410.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Parthasarathy, M.V., and Slobbe, W.G. 1978. Hartrot or Fatal Wilt of palms. I. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera). Principes 22:1–14.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Parthasarathy, M.V., Slobbe, W.G., and Soudant, C. 1976. Trypanosomatid flagellate in the phloem of diseased coconut palms. Science 192:1346–1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Patton, W.S. 1908. Herpetomonas lygaeae. Arch. Protistenk. 13:1–18.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Perthuis, B., Chenon, R.D., and Merland, E. 1985. Mise en évidence du vecteur de la marchitez sorpresiva du palmier à huile, la punaise Lincus lethifer Dolling (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae). Oleagineux 40:473–475.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Podlipaev, S.A. 1986. Phytomonas elmassiani (Matigophora: Trypanoso-mamonadina) from the plant Cynanchum sibiricum (Asclepiadaceae) in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. In Russian. Proc. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR 144:61–65.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Podlipaev, S.A. 1988. Blastocrithidia raabei rostrata subsp.n. (Mastigophora, Trypanosomamonadida) parasite of a bug Coreus marginatus. In Russian. Zool. J. Acad. Nauk USSR 67:1407–1411.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Podlipaev, S.A. 1990. Catalogue of world fauna of Trypanosomatidae (Protozoa). In Russian. Proc. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR 217:1–177.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Podlipaev, S.A., and Frolov, A.O. 1987. Description and laboratory cultivation of Blastocrithidia miridarum sp.n. (Mastigophora, Trypanosomatidae). In Russian. Parasitologiya 21:545–552.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Podlipaev, S.A., Frolov, A.O., and Kolesnikov, A.A. 1990. Proteomonas inconstans n.gen., n.sp. (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) a parasite of the bug Calocoris sexgutatus (Hemiptera: Miridae). In Russian. Parasitologiya 24:339–346.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Poisson, R. 1930. Sur un Herpetomonas parasite en Normandie de Spilostethus (Lygaeus) saxatilis (Scop.) (Hemiptères Lygeoideae). A propos des phytoflagelloses. C.R. Soc. Biol. 103:1057–1061.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Poisson, R. 1930. Herpetomonas tortum n.sp., parasite intestinal des Camptopus lateralis (Germ.) (Hémiptères Coreidae, Alydaria) des environs de Banyuls. Rôle possible de cet insect comme agent transmetteur de phytoflagellose. C.R. Soc. Biol 103:1061–1064.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Prasad, D.V.R.K., and Kalavati, C. 1987. Morphology and life-cycle of two new species of Leptomonas, L. indica sp.n. and L. bakeri sp.n. from lygaeid insects. Acta Proto zool. 26:315–324.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Reichenow, E. 1940. Ostafrikanische Beobachtungen an Trypanosomiden. Arch. Protistenk. 94:267–287.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rezende, M.L.V., Borges, R.E.L., Bezerra, J.L., and Oliveira, D.P. 1986. Transmissão da murcha de Phytomonas a coqueiros e dendezeiros por Lincas lobuliger (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae): resultados preliminares. Rev. Theobroma 16:149–154.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Robertson, M. 1912. Notes on some flagellate infections found in certain hemiptera in Uganda. Proc. Rog. Soc. London B 85:234–240.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Robertson, M. 1912. Notes on some flagellate infections found in certain hemiptera in Uganda. Proc. Rog. Soc. London B 85:234–240.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rodhain, J., and Bequaert, J. 1911. Présence de Leptomonas dans le latex d’une Euphorbe congolaise. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 4:198–200.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rodhain, J., Pons, C., Branden, F., and Bequaert, J. 1913. Leptomonas d’asilides et trypanosomides intestinaux de réduves et d’hémiptères phytophages au Katanga. Rev. Zool. Afric. 2:291–301.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ruiz, A. 1958. Contribuición al estudio del genero Phytomonas Donovan en Costa Rica. I. Phytomonas tortuosa n.sp. Rev. Biol. Trop. 6:87–93.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ruiz, A. 1958. Contribuición al estudio del genero Phytomonas Donovan en Costa Rica. II. Phytomonas elmassiani (Migone, 1916) Wenyon, 1926. Rev. Biol. Trop. 6:263–272.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ruiz, A. 1961. Contribuición al estudio del genero Phytomonas Donovan en Costa Rica. III. Phytomonas davidi (Lafont, 1909) Donovan, 1909. Rev. Biol. Trop. 9:227–231.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sbravate, C., Campaner, M., Camargo, L.E.A., Conchon, I., Teixeira, M.M.G., and Camargo, E.P. 1989. Culture and generic identification of trypanosomatids of phytophagous hemiptera in Brazil. J. Protozool. 36:543–547.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Scudder, G.G.E., and Duffey, S.S. 1972. Cardiac glycosides in the Lygaeinae. Can. J. Zool. 50:35–52.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shortt, H.E. 1923. Record of kala-azar research work carried on at the King Edward VII Memorial Pasteur Institute, Shillong, during 1922. Indian J. Med. Res. 10:1150–1168.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Slansky, F.J., and Panizzi, A.R. 1987. In F.J. Slansky and J.G. Rodriguez, eds., Nutritional Ecology of Seed-Sucking Insects. Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 283–320.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Slobbe, W.G. 1977. Phloem inhabiting Phytomonas in diseased coffee, coconut palms and African oil palms. Surin. Landb. 25:4–13.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Slobbe, W.G., Parthasarathy, M.V., and Hesen, J.A.J. 1978. Hartrot or fatal wilt of palms. II. Oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) and other palms. Principes 22:15–25.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Stahel, G. 1931. Zur Kenntnis der Siebröhrenkrankheit (Phloemnekrose) des Kaffeebaumes in Surinam. II. Phytopathol. Z. 4:539–548.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Strong, R.P. 1924. Investigations upon flagellate infections. Am. J. Trop. Med. 4:345–386.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sweet, M.H. 1960. The seed bugs: a contribution to the feeding habits of the Lygaeidae. Ann. Entomol Soc. Am. 53:317–321.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sweet, M.H. 1964. The biology and ecology of the Rhypanochrominae of New England (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) Part I. Entomol. Am. 43:1–124.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sweet, M.H. 1964. The biology and ecology of the Rhypanochrominae of New England (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) Part II. Entomol. Am. 44:1–201.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Teixeira, M.M.G., and Camargo, E.P. 1989. Monoclonal antibodies for the identification of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas. J. Protozool. 36:262–264.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Teodoro, G. 1927. Osservazioni sul Pyrrhocoris apterus L., con particolare riguardo alla flagellosi. Redia 16:45–50.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tieszen, K.L., Molyneux, D.H., and Abdel-Hafez, S.K. 1986. Host-parasite relationships of Blastocrithidia familiaris in Lygaeus pandurus Scop. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Parasitology 92:1–12.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Tuzet, O., and Laporte, M. 1965. Blastocrithidia vagoi, n.sp. parasite de l’hémiptère hetéroptère Eurydema ventralis Kol. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. 105:77–81.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Uribe, C. 1926. Crithidia ortheae n.sp. from reduvids of the genus Orthea. J. Parasitol 12:199–205.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Urueta, E.J. 1987. Investigaciónes sobre la Marchitez Sorpressiva de la palma africana en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Rev. Siall 4:4–16.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vainstein, M.H., and Roitman, I. 1986. Cultivation of Phytomonas françai associated with poor development of root system in cassava. J. Protozool. 33:511–513.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vaidya, S.K., and Ranade, D.R. 1984. Occurrence of Leptomonas pyrrhocoris in the hemolymph of Odontopus nigricornis (Insecta, Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Cur. Sci. (Bangalore) 53:606–607.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vermeulen, H. 1963. A wilt of Coffea liberica in Surinam and its association with a flagellate, Phytomonas leptovasorum Stahel. J. Protozool. 10:216–222.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Vermeulen, H. 1968. Investigations into the cause of the phloem necrosis disease of Coffea liberica in Surinam, South America. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 74:202–218.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Vickerman, K. 1962. Observations in the life cycle of Phytomonas elmassiani (Migone) in East Africa. J. Protozool. 9:26–33.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Villain, G. 1925. Note sur le kala-azar du Honan (Chine centrale). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 18:669–676.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wallace, F.G. 1966. The trypanosomatids of insects and arachnids. Exp. Parasitol. 18:124–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Wallace, F.G. 1977. Leptomonas seymouri sp.n. from the cotton stainer Dysdercus suturellus. J. Protozool. 24:483–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wallace, F.G. 1979. Biology of the Kinetoplastida of arthropods. In W.H.R. Lumsden and D.A. Evans, eds., Biology of the Kinetoplastida, Academic Press, London, Vol. 1, pp. 213–240.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wallace, F.G., Camargo, E.P., McGhee, R.B., and Roitman, I. 1983. Guidelines for the description of new species of lower trypanosomatids. J. Protozool. 30:308–313.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yoshida, N., Jankevicius, J.V., Roitman, I., and Camargo, E.P. 1978. Enzymes of the ornithine-arginine metabolism in the genus Herpetomonas. J. Protozool. 25:550–555.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Zotta, G. 1912. Sur un flagellé du type Herpetomonas chez Pyrrhocoris apterus. Ann. Sci. Univ. Jassy 7:210–223.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zotta, G. 1923. Leptomonas familiaris n.sp., parasite du tube digestif de Lygaeus familiaris, en Roumanie. C.R. Soc. Biol. 88:285–287.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Zotta, G. 1924. La leptomonadiose spontanée chez Cynanchum acutum, Asclepiadée autochtone in Roumanie. C.R. Soc. Biol. 90:141–143.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erney P. Camargo
    • 1
  • Franklin G. Wallace
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of ParasitologyUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.MinnesotaUSA

Personalised recommendations