Measurements of Environmental Lead Contamination and Human Exposure

  • A. Russell Flegal
  • Donald R. Smith
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 143)


The enormous magnitude and extent of environmental and human lead contamination has become apparent over the last three decades, while the harmful effects of lead contamination on human and environmental health still may not yet be fully realized (Needleman 1992; NRC 1993; USEPA 1986). Lead contamination of the biosphere has occurred on a global scale for hundreds if not thousands of years, and despite efforts by many industrialized nations to reduce some lead emissions (e.g., lead alkyls in gasoline), lead production worldwide continues to increase (U.S. Bureau of Mines 1992). Much of our current state of knowledge on the magnitude of contaminant lead in the environment and on its toxicity at low levels of exposure has been derived from recent analyses using more sensitive analytical and clinical measurement of lead and its effects on organisms.


Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry Lead Concentration Lead Exposure Blood Lead Level Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Russell Flegal
    • 1
  • Donald R. Smith
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Toxicology, WIGSUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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