Urban Lakes: Integrators of Environmental Damage and Recovery

  • John M. Gunn
  • W. Keller
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Most of the world’s human populations now live in rapidly expanding urban areas (Richardson 1991). These cities and towns vary widely in size and appearance, but they share a common feature: They are near water. Urban waters, in the form of lakes, streams, groundwater aquifers, and the nearshore areas of oceans, satisfy a wide variety of human needs (drinking water, transportation, industrial use, agricultural use, etc.). However, with few exceptions, urban waters have been and are being badly degraded by human activities (NRC 1992). To many, it may therefore be surprising that urban waters, particularly lakes, have received very little study by ecologists in North America (Gilbert 1989; McDonnell and Pickett 1990).


Urban Water Lake Trout Urban Lake Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant Ontario Lake 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Gunn
  • W. Keller

There are no affiliations available

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