Advertisement

Mineral Nutrition and Soil Fertility in Tropical Rain Forests

  • P. J. Grubb
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 112)

Abstract

The work of the last 50 years has provided an impressive body of information on the nutrient stocks in tropical forests, on rates of cycling, and on properties that are peculiar to tropical forests and their soils. In contrast, extremely little is known about the extent to which forest growth is limited by mineral nutrient supply or about the nutrients that limit particular species or collections of species on particular soils. Studies in the next 50 years will be important both for applied research (increasing forest productivity and establishing new forests on deforested land) and for pure research (understanding the ways in which plants are suited to live on the variety of tropical soils). In the past, important advances in understanding have come from curiosity-driven research as well as from strongly applied research, and a plea is made for adequate support in the future for curiosity-driven research.

Keywords

Tropical Forest Rain Forest Mineral Nutrition Tropical Rain Forest Montane Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Abbot, I., B. Dell, and O. Loneragan. 1989. The jarrah plant. Pages 41–51 in B. Dell, J.J. Havel, and N. Malajczuk, editors.The Jarrah Forest: A Complex Mediterranean System. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, I. 1989. Mycorrhizas in tropical forests. Pages 169–188 in J. Proctor, editor.Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 9. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J.M., and M.J. Swift. 1983. Decomposition in tropical forests. Pages 287–309 in S.L. Sutton, T.C. Whitmore, and A.C. Chadwock, editors.Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology and Management. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 2. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Attiwill, PM., and G.W. Leeper. 1987.Forest Soils and Management. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  5. Bartholomew, W.V. 1977. Soil nitrogen changes in farming systems in the humid tropics. Pages 27–42 in A. Ayanaba and R J. Dartz, editors.Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Farming Systems of the Tropics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Beadle, N.C.W., and G.J. White. 1968. The mineral content of the trunks of some Australian woody plants. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia3: 55–60.Google Scholar
  7. Beer, J.W., H.W. Fassbender, and J. Heuveldop, editors. 1987.Advances in Agroforestry Research. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica.Google Scholar
  8. Binkley, D. 1986.Forest Nutrition and Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Burslem, D.F.R.P., I.M. Turner, and P.J. Grubb. 1994. Mineral nutrient status of coastal hill dipterocarp forest and adinandra belukar in Singapore: Bioassays of nutrient limitation. Journal of Tropical Ecology10: 579–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cavelier, J. 1989.Root Biomass, Production and the Effects of Fertilization in Two Tropical Rain Forests. Dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Chandler, G. 1981. Physiological aspects of rain forest regeneration. I. Effects of light and nitrogen source on growth and ammonium assimilating enzymes ofSolanum mauritianumandSyzygium floribundum. New Phytologist87: 301–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chandler, G. 1985. Mineralization and nitrification in three Malaysian forest soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry17: 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandler, G., and S. Goosem. 1982. Aspects of rain forest regeneration. III. The interaction of phenols, light and nutrients. New Phytologist92: 369–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapin, F.S. 1980. The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics11: 233–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coley, P.D. 1983. Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecological Monographs53: 209–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corre, W.J. 1983. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants. III. The combined effects of light intensity and nutrient supply. Acta Botánica Neerlandica32: 277–294.Google Scholar
  17. Cuevas, E., and E. Medina. 1983. Root production and organic matter decomposition in a terra fume forest of the upper Rio Negro basin. Pages 653–666 in L. Kutschera, editor.International Symposium on Root Ecology and Its Applications. Gumpenstein, Irdning, Austria.Google Scholar
  18. Cuevas, E., and E. Medina. 1986. Nutrient dynamics with Amazonian forest ecosystems. I. Nutrient flux in fine litter fall and efficiency of nutrient utilization. Oecologia68: 466–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cuevas, E., and E. Medina. 1988. Nutrient dynamics with Amazonian forests. II. Fine root growth, nutrient availability and leaf litter decomposition. Oecologia76: 222–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dawkins, H.C. 1958.The Management of Natural Tropical High Forest with Special Reference to Uganda. Institute Papers No. 34. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford.Google Scholar
  21. Dawkins, H.C. 1959. The volume increment of natural tropical high forest and limitations on its improvement. Empire Forest Review38: 175–180.Google Scholar
  22. Denslow, J.S., J.C. Schultz, PM. Vitousek, and B.R. Strain. 1990. Growth responses of tropical shrubs to treefall gap environments. Ecology71: 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Denslow, J.S., PM. Vitousek, and J.C. Schultz. 1987. Bioassays of nutrient limitation in a tropical rain forest soil. Oecologia74: 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Rham, P 1970. L’azote dans quelques forêts, savanes et terrains de culture d’Afrique tropicale humide (Côte d’Ivoire). Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Instituts, Zurich45: 1–124.Google Scholar
  25. Edwards, P.J. 1977. Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. II. The production and disappearance of litter. Journal of Ecology65: 971–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edwards, P.J. 1989. Insect herbivory and plant defence. pages 275–297 in P.J. Grubb and J.B. Whittaker, editors. Toward a More Exact Ecology. Symposia of the British Ecological Society 30. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  27. Edwards, P.J., and P.J. Grubb. 1982. Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. IV Soil characteristics and the division of mineral elements between the vegetation and the soil. Journal of Ecology70: 649–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ellenberg, H. 1988.Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  29. Ewel, J.J. 1986. Designing agricultural ecosystems for the humid tropics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics17: 245–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ewel, J.J., and L.F. Conde. 1980.Potential Ecological Impact of Increased Intensity of Tropical Forest Utilization. Biotrop Special Publication No.11. Gaya Tehnik, Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  31. Grubb, P.J. 1971. Interpretation of the “Massenerhebung” effect on tropical mountains. Nature229: 44–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grubb, P.J. 1977. Control of forest growth and distribution on wet tropical mountains: With special reference to mineral nutrition. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics8: 83–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grubb, P.J. 1989a. The role of mineral nutrients in the tropics: A plant ecologist’s view. Pages 417–439 in J. Proctor, editor.Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Special Publications Series of the British Ecology Society 9. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Google Scholar
  34. Grubb, P.J. 1989b. Toward a more exact ecology: A personal view of the issues. Pages 3–29 in P.J. Grubb and J.B. Whittaker, editors.Toward a More Exact Ecology. Symposia of the British Ecological Society 30. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  35. Grubb, P.J. 1992. A positive distrust in simplicity-lessons from plant defences and from competition among plants and among animals. Journal of Ecology80: 585–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grubb, PJ., and P.J. Edwards. 1982. Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. III. The distribution of the mineral elements in the above-ground material. Journal of Ecology70: 623–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hardy, F. 1936. Some aspects of cocoa soil fertility in Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad13: 315–317.Google Scholar
  38. Janos, D. 1983. Tropical mycorrhizas, nutrient cycles and plant growth. Pages 327–345 in S.L. Sutton, T.C. Whitmore, and A.C. Chadwick, editors.Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology and Management. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 2. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  39. Janzen, D.H. 1974. Tropical blackwater rivers, animals and mast fruiting by the Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica6: 69–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jordan, C.F. 1982. Amazon rain forests. American Scientist70: 394–401.Google Scholar
  41. Jordan, C.F. 1985. Nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  42. Keller, M., T.J. Goreau, S.C. Wofsy, W.A. Kaplan, and M.B. McElroy. 1983. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils. Geophysical Research Letters10: 1156–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kellman, M. 1979. Soil enrichment by neotropical savanna trees. Journal of Ecology67: 565–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kellman, M. 1989. Mineral nutrient dynamics during savanna-forest transformation in Central America. Pages 137–151 in J. Proctor, editor.Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 9. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  45. Lawton, R.O., and F.E. Putz. 1988. Natural disturbance and gap-phase regeneration in a wind-exposed tropical cloud forest. Ecology69: 764–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leigh, E.G. 1975. Structure and climate in tropical rain forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics6: 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Linder, S., M.L. Benson, B.J. Myers, and R.J. Raison. 1987. Canopy dynamics and growth ofPinus radiata. I. Effects of irrigation and fertilization during a drought. Canadian Journal of Forest Research17: 1157–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lundergardh, H. 1931.Environment and Plant Development. Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  49. Markham, R.H., and A.J. Babbedge. 1979. Soil and vegetation catenas on the forest-savanna boundary in Ghana. Biotropica11: 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marrs, R.H., J. Proctor, A. Heaney, and M.D. Mountford. 1988. Changes in soil nitrogenmineralization and nitrification along an altitudinal transect in tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology76: 458–482.Google Scholar
  51. Matson, PA., and PM. Vitousek. 1987. Cross-system comparisons of soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux in tropical forest ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles1: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Matson, PA., P.M. Vitousek, J.J. Ewel, M.J. Mazzarino, and G.P. Robertson. 1987. Nitrogen transformations following tropical forest felling and burning on a volcanic soil. Ecology68: 491–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Medina, E., and E. Cuevas. 1989. Patterns of nutrient accumulation and release in Amazonian forests of the upper Rio Negro basin. Pages 217–240 in J. Proctor, editor.Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 9. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  54. Miller, H.G. 1984. Dynamics of nutrient cycling in plantation ecosystems. Pages 53–78 in G.D. Bowen and E.K.S. Nambiar, editors.Nutrition of Plantation Forests. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  55. Mohr, E.C.J., F.A. van Baren, and J. van Schuylenborgh. 1972.Tropical Soils: A Comprehensive Study of Their Genesis. Van Hoeve, The Hague.Google Scholar
  56. Murry, D.B., and R. Nichols. 1966. Light, shade and growth of some tropical plants. Pages 249–263 in R. Bainbridge, G.C. Evans, and O. Rackham, editors.Light as an Ecological Factor. Symposia of the British Ecological Society 6. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  57. Nortcliff, S., and J.B. Thornes. 1978. Water and cation movement in a tropical rain forest environment. I. Objectives, experimental design and preliminary results. Acta Amazonica8: 245–258.Google Scholar
  58. Nye, P.H. 1961. Organic matter and nutrient cycles under moist tropical forest. Plant and Soil13: 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nye, PH., and D.J. Greenland. 1960. TheSoil under Shifting Cultivation. Technical Communication No. 51, Commonwealth Bureau of Soil Sciences, Harpenden. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Farnham Royal, Bucks.Google Scholar
  60. Odum, H.T. 1970. Rain forest structure and mineral-cycling homeoestasis. Pages H3–H52 in H.T. Odum and R.F. Pigeon, editors.A Tropical Rain Forest: A Study of Irradiation and Ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.Google Scholar
  61. Peace, W.J.H., and P.J. Grubb. 1982. Interaction of light and mineral nutrient supply in the growth ofImpatiens parviflora. New Phytologist90: 127–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Proctor, J., editor. 1989.Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 9. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  63. Proctor, J., J.M. Anderson, S.C.L. Fogden, and H.W. Vallack. 1983. Ecological studies on four contrasting lowland rain forest in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. II. Litterfall, litter standing crop and preliminary observations on herbivory. Journal of Ecology71: 261–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Putz, F.E. 1983. Treefalls and mounds, buried seeds, and the importance of soil disturbance to pioneer trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology64: 1069–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Robertson, G.P, and T. Rosswall. 1986. Nitrogen in west Africa: The regional cycle. Ecological Mongraphs56: 43–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roeloffs, J.W. 1930. Over kunstmatige verjonging vanPinus merkesiiJungh et de Vr. enP. khasyaRoyle. Tectona23: 874–907.Google Scholar
  67. Ruinen, J. 1965. The phyllosphere. II. Nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere. Plant and Soil22: 375–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ruinen, J. 1975. Nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere. Pages 85–100 in W.D.P. Stewart, editor.Nitrogen Fixation by Free-Living Micro-organisms. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  69. Salati, E., R. Sylvester-Bradley, and R.L. Victoria. 1982. Regional gains and losses of nitrogen in the Amazon basin. Plant and Soil67: 367–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sánchez, PA. 1976.Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Singh, B.R., and Y Kanehiro. 1969. Adsorption of nitrate in amorphous and kaolinitic Hawaiian Soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings29: 681–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sollins, P 1989. Factors affecting nutrient cycling in tropical soils. Pages 85-95 in J. Proctor, editor.Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society 9. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  73. Tamm, C.O. 1964. Determination of nutrient requirements of forest stands. International Review of Forest Research1: 115–170.Google Scholar
  74. Tanner, E.V.J. 1977. Four montane rain forests of Jamaica: A quantitative characterization of the floristics, the soils and the foliar mineral levels, and a discussion of the interrelations. Journal of Ecology65: 883–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tanner, E.V.J. 1985. Jamaican montane forests: Nutrient capital and cost of growth. Journal of Ecology73: 553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tanner, E.V.J., V. Kapos, S. Freskos, J.R. Healey, and A.M. Theobald. 1990. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization of Jamaican montane forest trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology6: 231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Turner, I.M. 1991. Effects of shade and fertilizer addition on the seedlings of two tropical woody pioneer species. Tropical Ecology32: 24–29.Google Scholar
  78. Turner, I.M., N.D. Brown, and A.C. Newton. 1993. The effect of fertilizer application on dipterocarp seedling growth and mycorrhizal infection. Forest Ecology and Management57: 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ungemach, H. 1969. Chemical rain water studies in the Amazon basin. Pages 354-358 in J.M. Idrobo, editor.II. Simposioyforo de biología tropical Amazonica, Simposio del Asociación pro Biología Tropical. Pax, Bogota, Colombia.Google Scholar
  80. Vitousek, PM. 1984. Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology65: 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vitousek, PM., and J.S. Denslow. 1986. Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in treefall gaps of a lowland tropical rain forest. Journal of Ecology74: 1167–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vitousek, PM., and R.L. Sanford. 1986. Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics17: 137–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vitousek, P.M., L.R. Walker, L.D. Whiteaker, D. Mueller-Dombois, and PA. Matson. 1987. Biological invasion ofMyrica fayaalters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science238: 802–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Walter, H. 1936. Nahrstoffgehalt des Bodens and natürliche Waldbestände. Forstliche Wochenschrift Silva24:201–205, 209–213.Google Scholar
  85. Walter, H. 1936. Nahrstoffgehalt des Bodens and natürliche Waldbestände. Forstliche Wochenschrift Silva24:201–205, 209–213.Google Scholar
  86. Walter, H. 1973.Die Vegetation der Erde in ökophysiologischer Betrachtung. I. Die tropischen and subtropischen Zonen. Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  87. Went, F.W., and N. Stark. 1968. Mycorrhiza. BioScience18: 1035–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Whitmore, T.C. 1984.Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  89. Wild, F 1972. Nitrate leaching under bare fallow at a site in northern Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science23:315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Williams, R.F. 1955. Redistribution of mineral elements during development. Annual Review of Plant Physiology6: 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Grubb

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations