The word endoscope denotes “an instrument so arranged as to give a view of some internal part of the body through a natural canal.” The earliest endoscope using lenses was the crystoscope of Nitze (1879), which was passed through the urethra to examine the interior of the urinary bladder. About the same time a gastroscope was developed and passed through the mouth for the partial examination of the esophagus and stomach. Until the development of modern endoscopes, the instrument consisted of a rigid metal tube containing lenses. Illumination was provided by a small electric bulb at the distal end. The level of illumination, image sharpness, color rendering, and image contrast were all very poor in this traditional form of endoscope. Photography of the endoscopic view was almost impossible and the endoscopic performance of therapeutic procedures without the need for open surgery was very limited.
KeywordsFatigue Tungsten Coherence Refraction Glutaraldehyde
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