Visualization

  • Sarah Cheslyn-Curtis
  • Harold H. Hopkins
  • Joseph R. Williams
  • William Chang
  • S. Jan Morgan

Abstract

The word endoscope denotes “an instrument so arranged as to give a view of some internal part of the body through a natural canal.” The earliest endoscope using lenses was the crystoscope of Nitze (1879), which was passed through the urethra to examine the interior of the urinary bladder. About the same time a gastroscope was developed and passed through the mouth for the partial examination of the esophagus and stomach. Until the development of modern endoscopes, the instrument consisted of a rigid metal tube containing lenses. Illumination was provided by a small electric bulb at the distal end. The level of illumination, image sharpness, color rendering, and image contrast were all very poor in this traditional form of endoscope. Photography of the endoscopic view was almost impossible and the endoscopic performance of therapeutic procedures without the need for open surgery was very limited.

Keywords

Fatigue Tungsten Coherence Refraction Glutaraldehyde 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

References

  1. 1.
    Hopkins HH, Kapany NS. A flexible fibre-scope using static scanning. Nature 1954; 173:39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Heel ACS. A new method of transporting optical images without aberration. Nature 1954; 173:39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hopkins HH. Rod lens, British Patent No. 954629.Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Kawahara I, Ichikawa H. Fiberoptic instrument technology. In Sivak, M V, Jr., ed: Gastroenterologic Endoscopy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barlow D E. Fiberoptic instrument technology. In Tams, T R, ed: Small Animal Endoscopy. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Overholt B F. The history of colonoscopy. In Waye, J D Hunt R H. ed: Colonoscopy. London: Chapman and Hall, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Salmon P R. Fibre-optic Endoscopy. London: Grune & Stratton, 1974.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hecht E. Optics. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gruenther R D. Modern Optics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iizuka K. Engineering Optics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Cheslyn-Curtis
  • Harold H. Hopkins
  • Joseph R. Williams
  • William Chang
  • S. Jan Morgan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations