• Dickson D. Despommier
  • Robert W. Gwadz
  • Peter J. Hotez


The insects have two distinct types of development. The more primitive insect orders pass through a series of stages by incomplete metamorphosis (Fig. 38.1). A typical life cycle involves the egg, a usually fixed number of immature nymphal stages, and the mature adult stage. The insect molts between stages, sheds its old exoskeleton, and reveals a new skin within. Nymphs are similar to the adult but lack wings and are sexually immature.


Blood Meal Head Louse Nymphal Stage Mouth Part Body Louse 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dickson D. Despommier
    • 1
  • Robert W. Gwadz
    • 2
  • Peter J. Hotez
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia University, Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Yale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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