Ventricular Septal Defects

  • Bradley J. Harlan
  • Albert Starr
  • Fredic M. Harwin
  • Alain Carpentier


Isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac defect, with an incidence of approximately 2 per 1000 live births.22 Isolated VSD accounts for 25% of all congenital heart disease.26 The wide range of physiology and natural history of VSDs necessitates careful consideration of operative indications and timing. Understanding of the anatomic variations and applicable surgical techniques is necessary to achieve the excellent results that are possible today.


Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary Valve Aortic Insufficiency 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley J. Harlan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Albert Starr
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Fredic M. Harwin
    • 6
  • Alain Carpentier
    • 7
  1. 1.Section of Thoracic and Cardiovascular SurgerySutter Memorial HospitalSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Davis Medical SchoolUniversity of CaliforniaSacramentoUSA
  3. 3.Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Heart Institute at St. Vincent HospitalPortlandUSA
  5. 5.Starr-Wood Cardiac Group, P.C.PortlandUSA
  6. 6.Harwin StudiosPortlandUSA
  7. 7.Hôpital BroussaisUniversity of ParisParisFrance

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