Tributaries and Discharges

  • Steven W. Effler
  • Keith A. Whitehead
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Discharge to Onondaga Lake has been well monitored since the late 1960s/early 1970s, as the principal surface inflows have been nearly continuously gauged since that time. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) presently maintains nine continuous gauging stations in the watershed: three on Ninemile Creek, two each on Onondaga Creek and Harbor Brook, one on Ley Creek, and lake level is monitored at the marina on the east shore (Figure 3.1). A station is located proximate to the mouth of each of these four tributaries (Figure 3.1). The upstream station on Onondaga Creek (located at the city limit of Syracuse, above the combined sewer overflows) has played a particularly important role in the assessment of the relative contributions of the urban area in the loading of certain key pollutants from Onondaga Creek. The discharge from the metropolitan sewage treatment plant (METRO) has also been monitored continuously.


Fecal Coliform Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Total Phosphorus Concentration Fecal Coliform Bacterium Onondaga Lake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. APHA. 1985, 1989. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16th and 17th Editions. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Auer, M.T., Doerr, S.M., and Effler, S.W. 1994. A zero degree of freedom total phosphorus model. J Environ Engr ASCE (in review).Google Scholar
  3. Auer, M.T., Effler, S.W., Heidtke, T.M., and Doerr, S.M. 1992. Hydrologic budget considerations and mass balance modeling of Onondaga Lake. Submitted to the Onondaga Lake Management Conference, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  4. Auer, M.T., Storey, M.L., Effler, S.W., Auer, N.A., and Sze, P. 1990. Zooplankton impacts on chlorphyll and transparency in Onondaga Lake, New York, U.S.A. Hydrobiology. 200/201: 603–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beaulac, M.N., and Reckhow, K.H. 1982. An examination of land use-nutrient export relationships. Water Resources Bull. 18: 1013–1024.Google Scholar
  6. Bernard, P.C., Van Greiken, R.E., and Eisma, D. 1986. Classification of estuarine particles using automated electron microprobe analysis and multivariate techniques. Environ Sei Technol. 20: 267–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bodo, B., and Unny, T.B. 1983. Sampling strategies for mass-discharge estimation. J Environ Engr ASCE. 198: 812–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowie, G.L., Mills, W.B., Porcella, D.B., Campbell, C.L., Pagenkopf, J.C., Rupp, G.L., Johnson, K.M., Chan, P.W.H., Gherini, S.A., and Chamberlain, C. 1985. Rates, Constants, and Kinetics Formulation in Surface Water Quality Modeling, 2d ed. EPA/6090/3–85/040. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Georgia, 455p.Google Scholar
  9. Brezonik, P.L. 1972. Nitrogen: sources and transformations in natural waters, In: H.E. Allen and T.R. Kramer (eds.), Nutrients in Natural Waters. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 1–50.Google Scholar
  10. Brooks, C.M., and Effler, S.W. 1990. The distribution of nitrogen species in polluted Onondaga Lake, N.Y., U.S.A. Water Air and Soil Poll. 52: 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Canale, R.P., Auer, M.T., Owens, E.M., Heidtke, T.M., and Effler, S.W. 1993. Modeling fecal coliform bacteria: II Model development and application. Water Res. 27: 703–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Canale, R.P., and Effler, S.W. 1989. Stochastic phosphorus model for Onondaga Lake. Water Res. 23: 1009–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canale, R.P., Gelda, R., and Effler, S.W. 1995. Development and testing of a nitrogen model for Onondage Lake, NY. Lake Reservoir Manag, (in review).Google Scholar
  14. Carder, K.L., Steward, R.G., Johnson, D.L., and Prospero, J.M. 1986. Dynamics and composition of particles from anaeolian input event to the Sargasso Sea. J Geophys Res. 91 (Dl): 1055–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapra, S.C., and Reckhow, K.H. 1983. Engineering Approaches for Lake Management. Volume 1: Data Analysis and Empirical Modeling. Butterworth, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  16. Clesceri, N.L., Curan, S.J., and Sedlak, R.I. 1986. Nutrient loads to Wisconsin lakes: Part I. Nitrogen and phosphorus export coefficients. Water Resources Bull. 22: 983–990.Google Scholar
  17. Devan, S.P., and Effler, S.W. 1984. History of phosphorus loading to Onondaga Lake. J Environ Engr ASCE 110: 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dillon, P.J. 1975. The phosphorus budget of Cameron Lake, Ontario: The importance of flushing rate to the degree of eutrophy of Lakes. Limnol Oceanogr. 20: 28—45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DiToro, D.M. 1978. Optics of turbid estuarine water: approximations and applications. Water Res. 12: 1059–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Driscoll, C.T., Effler, S.W., Auer, M.T., Doerr, S.M., and Penn, M.R. 1993. Supply of phosphorus to the water column of a productive hardwater lake: controlling mechanisms and management considerations. Hydrobiology 253: 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doerr, S.M., Canale, R.P., and Effler, S.W. 1995. Development and testing of a total phosphorus model for Onondage Lake, N.Y. Lake Reservoir Manag. (in review).Google Scholar
  22. Doerr, S.M., Effler, S.W., Whitehead, K.A., Auer, M.T., Perkins, M.G., and Heidtke, T.M. 1994. Chloride model for polluted Onondaga Lake. Water Res. 28: 849–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Effler, S.W. 1988. Secchi disc transparency and turbidity. J Environ Engr ASCE 114: 1336–1447.Google Scholar
  24. Effler, S.W., Brooks, C.M., Addess, J.M., Doerr, S.M., Storey, M.L., and Wagner, B.A. 1991. Pollutant loadings from Solvay waste beds to lower Ninemile Creek, New York. Water Air Soil Pollut. 55: 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Effler, S.W., Brooks, C.B., Auer, M.T., and Doerr, S.M. 1990. Free Ammonia and toxicity criteria in a polluted urban lake. Res J Water Pollut Contr Fed. 62: 771–779.Google Scholar
  26. Effler, S.W., Brooks, C.M., and Whitehead, K.A. 1995a. Domestic waste inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to Onondaga Lake, and water quality impheations. Lake Reservoir Manag. (in review).Google Scholar
  27. Effler, S.W., and Driscoll, C.T. 1985a. Calcium chemistry and deposition in ionically polluted Onondaga Lake, NY. Environ Sei Technol. 19: 716–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Effler, S.W., and Driscoll, C.T. 1985b. A chloride budget for Onondaga Lake, NY, U.S.A. Water Air Soil Pollut. 27: 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Effler, S.W., Driscoll, C.T., Wodka, M.C., Honstein, R., Devan, S.P., Jaran, P., and Edwards, T. 1985. Phosphorus cycling in ionically polluted Onondaga Lake, New York. Water Air Soil Pollut. 24: 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Effler, S.W., Hassett, J.P., Auer, M.T., and Johnson, N. 1988. Depletion of epilimnetic oxygen and accummulation of hydrogen sulfide in the hypolimnion of Onondaga Lake, NY, U.S.A. Water Air Soil Pollut. 39: 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Effler, S.W., and Hennigan, R. 1995. Onondaga Lake: Legacy of pollution. Lake Reservoir Manag. (accepted)Google Scholar
  32. Effler, S.W., and Johnson, D.L. 1987. Calcium carbonate precipitation and turbidity measurements in Otisco Lake, N.Y. Water Resources Bull. 23: 73–77.Google Scholar
  33. Effler, S.W., Johnson, D.L., Jiao, J.F., and Perkins, M.G. 1992. Optical impacts and sources of suspended solids in Onondaga Creek, U.S.A. Water Resources Bull. 28: 251–262.Google Scholar
  34. Effler, S.W., and Owens, E.M. 1986. The density of inflows to Onondaga Lake, U.S.A., 1980 and 1981. Water Air Soil Pollut. 28: 105–115.Google Scholar
  35. Effler, S.W., and Owens, E.M. 1987. Modification in phosphorus loading to Onondaga Lake, U.S.A., associated with alkali manufacturing. Water Air Soil Pollut. 32: 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Effler, S.W., Perkins, M.G., and Brooks, C. 1986. The oxygen resources of the hypolimnion of ionically enriched Onondaga Lake, NY, U.S.A. Water Air Soil Pollut. 29: 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Effler, S.W., Perkins, M.G., Whitehead, K.A., and Romanowicz, E.A. 1995b. Ionic Inputs to Onondaga Lake: origins, character, changes, and selected implications. Lake Reservoir Manag. (in review).Google Scholar
  38. Environmental Laboratory. 1986. CE-QUAL-R1: A numeric One-dimensional Model of Reservoir Water Quality: User’s Manual, Instruction Report E-82–1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.Google Scholar
  39. Getchell, F.A. 1983. Subsidence in the Tully Valley, New York, Masters Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  40. Harbeck, G.E. 1958. Water-loss investigations: Lake Mead Studies. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pap. 298: 29–37.Google Scholar
  41. Harris, G.P. 1986. Phytoplankton Ecology, Structure, Function, and Fluctuation. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Hartigan, J.P., Quasebarth, T.F., and Southerland, E. 1983. Calibration of NPS model loading factors. J Environ Engr ASCE 109: 1259–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heidtke, T.M. 1989a. Onondaga Lake Loading Analysis: Total Phosphorus. Submitted to Central New York Regional Planning and Development Board, Syracuse, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Heidtke, T.M. 1989b. Onondaga Lake Loading Analysis: Fecal Coliforms. Submitted to Central New York Regional Planning and Development Agency, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  45. Heidtke, T.M. 1991. Partitioning Total Phosphorus Loadings from Onondaga Creek: An Assessment of Rural and Urban Contributions. Submitted to the Onondaga Lake Management Conference, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  46. Heidtke, T.M., and Auer, M.T. 1992. Partitioning phosphorus loads: implications for lake restoration. J Water Resour Plan Manag. (ASCE) 118: 562–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, A.H. 1979. Estimating solute transport in streams from grab samples. Water Resources Res. 15: 1224–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, D.L., Jiao, J.F., Dos Santos, S.G., and Effler, S.W. 1991. Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake. Environ Sci Technol. 25: 736–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kirk, J.T.O. 1981. Estimation of the scattering coefficient of natural waters using underwater irradiance measurements. Austral J Mar Freshwater Res. 32: 533–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirk, J.T.O. 1983. Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  51. Kirk, J.T.O. 1985. Effects of suspensoids (turbidity) on penetration of solar radiation in aquatic ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 125: 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kramer, J.R., Heibes, S.E., and Allen, H.E. 1972. Phosphorus: analysis of water, biomass, and sediment. In: Nutrients in Natural Waters, Wiley Interscience, New York, pp. 51–100.Google Scholar
  53. Loder, T.C., and Liss, P.S. 1985. Control by organic coatings of the surface charge of estuarine suspended particles. Limnol Oceanogr. 30: 418–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mancini, J.L. 1978. Numerical estimates of coliform mortality rates under various conditions. J Wat Pollut Contr Fed. 50: 2477–2484.Google Scholar
  55. Manczak, H., and Florczyk, L. 1971. Interpretation of results from the studies of pollution of surface flowing waters. Water Res. 5: 575–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marselak, J. 1978. Pollution Due to Urban Runoff: Unit Loads and Abatement Measures. Report to the International Joint Commision. Windsor, Ontario.Google Scholar
  57. Messer, J.J., Ho, J., and Grenney, W.J. 1984. Ionic strength correction for extent of ammonia ionization in freshwater. J Can Fish Aquat Sci. 41: 811–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mosteller, F., and Tukey, J.W. 1978. Data Analysis and Regression: A Second Course in Statistics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  59. Murphy, T.P., Hall, K.J., and Yesaki, I. 1983. Coprecipitation of phosphate with calcite in a naturally eutrophic lake. Limnol Oceanogr. 28: 58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. O’Brien and Gere Engineers Inc. 1973. Environmental Assessment Statement, Syracuse Metropohtan Sewage Treatment Plant and the West Side Pump Station and Force Main. Submitted to Onondaga County, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  61. O’Brien and Gere Engineers Inc. 1987. Combined Sewer Overthow Abatement Program Post-BMP Assessment. Submitted to the Department of Drainage and Sanitation of Onondage County, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  62. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1982. Eutrophication of Waters: Monitoring, Assessment and Control. Director of Information, OECD, Paris, 154p.Google Scholar
  63. Onondaga County. 1971–1991. Onondaga Lake Monitoring Program Annual Reports. Onondaga County Department of Drainage and Sanitation, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  64. Onondaga County. 1988. Onondaga Lake Monitoring Program, Annual Report 1987. Department of Drainage and Sanitation, Onondaga County, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  65. Otsuki, A., and Wetzel, R.G. 1972. Coprecipitation of phospate with carbonates in a marl lake. Limnol Oceanogr. 17: 763–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Owens, E.M. 1987. Bathymetric Survey and Mapping of Onondaga Lake, New York. Submitted to Onondaga County by the Upstate Freshwater Institute, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  67. Owens, E.M., and Effler, S.W. 1989. Changes in stratification in Onondaga Lake, New York. Water Resources Bull. 25: 587–597.Google Scholar
  68. Parks, R.A. 1968. Paleoecology of Venericardia sensu lato (Pelecypoda) in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Province: an application of paleosynecologic methods. J Paleo. 42: 955–989.Google Scholar
  69. PLUARG, (Johnson, M.G., Corneau, J.C., Heidtke, T.M., Sonzogni, W., and Stahlbaum, B.) 1978. Management Information Base and Overview Modeling. PLUARG Special Report to the International Joint Commision. Windsor, Ontario.Google Scholar
  70. Rooney, J. 1973. Memorandum (cited by USEPA, Environmental Impart Statement on Wastewater Treatment Facilities Construction Grants for the Onondage Lake Dramage Basin).Google Scholar
  71. Russo, R.C., Smith, C.E., and Thurston, R.V. 1974. Acute toxicity of nitrite to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fish Res Bd Can. 31: 1653–1655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schaffner, W.C., and Olgesby, R.T. 1987. Phosphorus loadings to lakes and some of their responses, Part 1. A new calculation of phosphorus loading and its application to 13 New York lakes. Limnol Oceanogr-; 23: 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shilts, W.W. 1978. Genesis of mud boils. Can J Earth Sci. 15: 1053–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smithgall, C. 1989 (April). Analysis of NYSDEC 1988. Tributary Phosphorus Data (memo). Moffa and Associates Inc. Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  75. Smithgall, C., Moffa, P.E., and Klosowski, R. 1991 (March). 1990 Onondaga Creek Phosphorus Loading Evaluations (memo). Moffa and Associates Inc. Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  76. Stearns and Wheler Engineers. 1979. Onondaga Lake Storms Impact Study. Submitted to Onondaga County, Department of Drainage and Sanitation. Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  77. Stearns and Wheler Engineers. 1991. Projected Flows and Loadings METRO Engineering Alternatives. Submitted to Onondaga County Department of Drainage and Sanitation. Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  78. Stumm, W., and Morgan, J.J. 1981. Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Thomann, R.V., and Mueller, J.A. 1987. Principles of Surface Water Quality Modeling and Control. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  80. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1985. Ambient water quality criteria for ammonia—1984. Office of Water Regulations and Standards Criteria and Standards Division, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  81. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1975. Process Design Manual for Nitrogen Control. Technology Transfer Document. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  82. United States Geological Survey, 1972–1989. Water Resources Data for New York, Water Years 1971–1988, Western New York. Albany, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Viessmann, W., Knapp, J.W., Lewis, G.L., and Harbaugh, T.E. 1977. Introduction to Hydrology, 2d ed. Harper and Row. New York.Google Scholar
  84. Vollenweider, R.A. 1968. Scientific Fundamentals of the Eutrophication of Lakes and Flowing Waters with Particular Reference to Nitrogen and Phosphorus as Factors in Eutrophication. Technical Report DAS/C81/68, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.Google Scholar
  85. Vollenweider, R.A. 1975. Input-output models with special reference to the phosphorus loading concept in limnology. Schwerz Z Hydrol. 37: 53–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Walker, W.W. 1987. Empirical Methods for Predicting Eutrophication in Impoundments. Report 4: Phase III: Applications Manual. Technical Report E-81–9. US Army Engineer Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg, MS.Google Scholar
  87. Wetzel, R.G. 1983. Limnology. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  88. Wodka, M.C., Effler, S.W., Driscoll, C.T., Fields, S.D., and Devan, S.P. 1983. Diffusivity-based flux of phosphorus in Onondaga Lake. J Environ Engr ASCE. 109: 1403–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yin, C.Q., and Johnson, D.L. 1984. Sedimentation and particle class balances in Onondaga Lake, N.Y. Limnol Oceanogr. 29: 1193–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Effler
  • Keith A. Whitehead

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations