Astaxanthinogenesis in the Yeast Phaffia rhodozyma

Optimization of Low-Cost Culture Media and Yeast Cell-Wall Lysis
  • José D. Fontana
  • Madalena Baron
  • Manoel F. Guimaraes
  • Marcelo Maraschin
  • Jose A. Florêncio
  • Tania M. B. Bonfim
  • Miriam B. Chocial
  • Cirano Ulhoa
Chapter
Part of the Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology book series (ABAB, volume 63-65)

Abstract

Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni2 (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. Since the synthesized astaxanthin is associated with the yeast cell and the pigment requires facilitated release for aquaculture uses (farmed fish meat staining), an investigation of the yeast cell wall was undertaken using detergent-treated cells. The composition of the rigid yeast envelope was found to be heterogeneous. Its partial acid or enzymatic depolymerization revealed glucose and xylose as common monomeric units of the cell-wall glycopolymers. Yeast cell-wall partial depolymerization with appropriate hydrolases may improve the pigment bioavailability for captive aquatic species and poultry.

Index Entries

Phaffia astaxanthin corn steep liquor distillery effluent cell wall 

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • José D. Fontana
    • 1
  • Madalena Baron
    • 1
  • Manoel F. Guimaraes
    • 1
  • Marcelo Maraschin
    • 1
  • Jose A. Florêncio
    • 1
  • Tania M. B. Bonfim
    • 2
  • Miriam B. Chocial
    • 2
  • Cirano Ulhoa
    • 3
  1. 1.LQBB-Biomass Chemo Biotechnology Laboratory/Biochemistry/UFPRCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Pharmacy Course/UFPRBrazil
  3. 3.Celular Biology DepartmentUnB-BrasiliaBrazil

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