Astaxanthinogenesis in the Yeast Phaffia rhodozyma
Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni2 (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. Since the synthesized astaxanthin is associated with the yeast cell and the pigment requires facilitated release for aquaculture uses (farmed fish meat staining), an investigation of the yeast cell wall was undertaken using detergent-treated cells. The composition of the rigid yeast envelope was found to be heterogeneous. Its partial acid or enzymatic depolymerization revealed glucose and xylose as common monomeric units of the cell-wall glycopolymers. Yeast cell-wall partial depolymerization with appropriate hydrolases may improve the pigment bioavailability for captive aquatic species and poultry.
Index EntriesPhaffia astaxanthin corn steep liquor distillery effluent cell wall
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Johnson, E. A. (1995), Stud. Mycology 38, 81–90.Google Scholar
- 4.Lambert, C. R. (1995), Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 2391, (Laser-Tissue Interaction VI), 218–224.Google Scholar
- 7.Johnson, E. A. (1995), Proc. 1995 Intl. Chem. Congress of Pacific Basin Soc. Honolulu, Hawaii, ref. 339 (Agrochemistry).Google Scholar
- 8.Katz, A., Jimenez, C., and Pick, U. (1995), Plant Physiol. 108(4), 1657–1664.Google Scholar
- 9.Miller, M. W., Yokoyama, M., and Soneda, M. (1976), Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26, 73.Google Scholar
- 11.Dawson, R. M. C., Elliot, D. C., and Jones, K. M. (1986), Data for Biochemical Research,Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
- 13.Armstrong, G. A. and Hearst, J. E. (1996), FASEB J. 10, 228–237.Google Scholar