Advertisement

The Impact of Hydrologic Perturbations on Arctic Ecosystems Induced by Climate Change

  • Douglas L. Kane
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 124)

Abstract

The physical environment of the polar regions of the world go through large seasonal swings, such as air temperature, duration and intensity of solar radiation, surface albedo, and surface energy balance, as well as the magnitude of many of the hydrologic processes. These fluctuations affect both the animal and plant biota, particularly in the Low Arctic where they are more predominant. Long-term alterations induced by climatic change, superimposed on the seasonal changes, could further influence the ecosystem. In the last 20 years or so we have begun to study how ecosystems work in the Arctic and how the various physical, chemical, and biological processes are interwoven and sustain today’s environment.

Keywords

Active Layer Surface Energy Balance Arctic Ecosystem Permafrost Table Early Snowmelt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benson, C.S. 1982. Reassessment of winter precipitation on Alaska’s Arctic Slope and measurements on the flux of wind blown snow. Rep. UAG R-288, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute.Google Scholar
  2. Billings, W.D. 1992. Phytogeographic and evolutionary potential of arctic flora and vegetation in a changing climate. In: Chapin, F.S., III, Jefferies, R.L., Reynolds, J.F., Shaver, G.R., and Svoboda, J. (eds.), Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate, an Ecophysiological Perspective(pp. 91 – 109 ). New York: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Clagett, G.P. 1988. The Wyoming windshield—an evaluation after 12 years of use in Alaska. Proc. of Western Snow Conference, pp. 113 – 123.Google Scholar
  4. Eastland, W.G., and White, R.G. 1991. Potential effects of global warming on calving caribou. In: Weller, G., Wilson, C.L., and Severin, B.A.B. (eds.), International Conference on the Role of Polar Regions in Global Change, Geophysical Institute and Center for Global Change and Arctic System Science, pp. 460 – 464.Google Scholar
  5. Eastland, W.G., Bowyer, R.T., and Fancy, S.G. 1989. Effects of snow cover on the selection of calving sites by caribou. J. Mamm.70 (4): 824 – 828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fancy, S.G., and White, R.G. 1985. Energy expenditures by caribou while cratering in snow. J. Wildl. Manage.49 (4): 987 – 993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hinzman, L.D., and Kane, D.L. 1991. Snow hydrology of a headwater arctic basin 2. Conceptual analysis and computer modeling. Water Resources Res. 27(6):1111– 1121.Google Scholar
  8. Hinzman, L.D., and Kane, D.L. 1992. Potential response of an arctic watershed during a period of global warming. J. Geophys. Res.97 (D3): 2811 – 2820.Google Scholar
  9. Hinzman, L.D., Kane, D.L., Gieck, R.E., and Everett, K.R. 1991. Hydrologic and thermal properties of the active layer in the Alaskan Arctic. Cold Regions Sci. Technol.19: 95 – 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hinzman, L.D., Kane, D.L., Benson, C.S., and Everett, K.R. 1996. Energy balance and hydrological processes in an arctic watershed. In: Reynolds, J.F., and Tenhunen, J.D. (eds.), Landscape function and disturbance in arctic tundra(pp. 131–154). Ecological Studies, Vol. 120, New York, Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1990. Climate Change, the IPCC Scientific Assessment(Houghton, J.T., Jenkins, G.J., and Ephraums, J.J., eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1992a. Scientific Assessment of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1992b. Climate change 1992, The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment(Houghton, J.T., Callander, B.A., and Varney, S.K., eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kane, D.L. 1993. Meteorological and hydrologic studies in the Alaskan Arctic in support of long-term ecological research. In: Redmond, K.T., and Tharp, V.L., (eds.), Proc. of the Ninth Annual Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, April 21–24,1992. California Dept. of Water Resources, Interagency Ecological Studies Program, Tech. Rep. 34: 13 – 21.Google Scholar
  15. Kane, D.L., Gieck, R.E., and Hinzman, L.D. 1990. Evapotranspiration from a small Alaskan Arctic watershed. Nordic Hydrol. 21: 253 – 272.Google Scholar
  16. Kane, D.L., Hinzman, L.D., Benson, C.S., and Everett, K.R. 1989. Hydrology of Imnavait Creek, an Arctic watershed. Holarctic Ecol. 12: 262 – 269.Google Scholar
  17. Kane, D.L., Hinzman, L.D., Benson, C.S., and Liston, G.E. 1991. Snow hydrology of a headwater arctic basin 1. Physical measurements and process studies. Water Resources Res. 27 (6): 1099 – 1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kane, D.L., Hinzman, L.D., Woo, M.K., and Everett, K.R. 1992. Arctic hydrology and climate change. In: Chapin, F.S., III, Jefferies, R.L., Reynolds, J.F., Shaver, G.R., and Svoboda, J. (eds.), Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate, an Eco- physiological Perspective(pp. 35 – 57 ). New York: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Klein, D.R., Melgaard, M., and Fancy, S.G. 1987. Factors determining leg length in Rangifer tarandus. J. Mamm. 68 (3): 642 – 655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lachenbruch, A.H., and Marshall, B.V. 1986. Changing climate: Geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Science234: 689 – 696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manabe, S., and Stouffer, R.J. 1980. Sensitivity of a global climate model to an increase in C02 concentration in the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res.85: 5529 – 5554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maxwell, B. 1992. Arctic climate: Potential for change under global warming. In: Chapin, F.S., III, Jefferies, R.L., Reynolds, J.F., Shaver, G.R., and Svoboda, J. (eds.), Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate, an Ecophysiological Perspective(pp. 11 – 34 ). New York: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Russel, D.E., Martell, A.M., and Nixon, W.A.C. 1993. Range Ecology of the Porcupine Caribou Herd in Canada. Nordic Council for Reindeer Research, Harstad, Norway. Rangifer Special Issue. 8.Google Scholar
  24. Schlesinger, M.E., and Mitchell, J.F.B. 1985. Climate model simulations of the equilibrium climatic response to increased carbon dioxide. Rev. Geophys.25: 760 – 798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sveinbjörnsson, B. 1992. Arctic tree line in a changing environment. In: Chapin, F.S., III, Jefferies, R.L., Reynolds, J.F., Shaver, G.R., and Svoboda, J. (eds.), Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate, an Ecophysiological Perspective(pp. 239 – 256 ). New York: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Woo, M.K. 1990. Consequences of climate change for hydrology in permafrost zones. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering4 (l): 15 – 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Woo, M.K., Heron, R., and Marsh, P. 1982. Basal ice in High Arctic snowpacks. Arctic Alpine Res. 14 (3): 251 – 260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Woo, M.K. 1986. Permafrost hydrology in North America. Atmos. Ocean24(3):201– 234.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas L. Kane

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations