Teenage Girls Dietary Intake, Attitude Toward Dairy Products, and Bone Mineral Density One Year after the Cessation of a Dairy Product Food Supplement Study

  • Elizabeth J. Smart
  • Nigel Leslie Gilchrist
  • John G. Turner
  • Patricia Maguire
  • Rachel March
  • Edith A. Hooke
  • Chris M. Frampton
Part of the Proceedings in the Serono Symposia USA Series book series (SERONOSYMP)


Dietary calcium is important for reaching skeletal maturity in adolescents. Ninety-five percent of bone acquisition appears to be completed by the age of 18 years and a further 0 to 5% by the age of 30 years. A recent metaanalysis evaluating all the existing literature confirms this finding, with a positive relationship between calcium intake during adolescence and bone mass in females 18 to 50 years of age (1). Prospective randomized clinical trials have shown that calcium supplementation can increase bone acquisition in adolescence (2–7), early adulthood, and the third decade of life (8, 9). When calcium supplementation ceased, the benefit in bone mineral density appeared to disappear (10–12). However, in a recent dairy food supplementation study (13), the beneficial effect in bone density was maintained after the cessation of the dairy food supplement. We have examined the long-term effects and benefits in bone mineral density and attitude towards dairy products one year after the cessation of a two-year dairy product food supplementation study.


Bone Mineral Density Calcium Supplementation Dietary Calcium Intake Teenage Girl Dairy Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Welten DC, Kemper HCG, Post GB, Van Straveren WA. A meta-analysis of the effect of calcium intake on bone mass in young and middle aged females and males. J Nutr 1995; 125: 2802–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnston CC, Jr, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui S, Christian JC, et al. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 82–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan MG, Hoffman K, McMurry M. Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. J Pediatr 1995; 126: 551–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu PW, Briody JN, Ogle GD, Morley K, Humphries IR, Allen J, et al. Bone mineral density of total body, spine and femoral neck in children and young adults: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res 1994; 9: 1451–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee WTK, Leung SSF, Wang SH, Xu YC, Zeng WP, Lau J, et al. Double blind controlled calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in children accustomed to a low-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 744–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cadogan J, Eastell R, Jones N, Barker M. A study of bone growth in adolescent girls: the effect of an 18 month milk-based dietary intervention. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10 Suppl 1:S350 (abstract).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis JR, Demers LM, et al. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. JAMA 1993; 270: 841–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matkovic V, Fontana D, Tominac C, Goel P, Chesnut CH III. Factors that influence peak bone mass formation: a study of calcium balance and the inheritance of bone mass in adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 878–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Recker RR, Davies KM, Hinders SM, Heaney RP, Stegman MR, Kimmel DB. Bone gain in young adult women. JAMA 1992; 268: 2403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Peacock M, Johnston CC. Bone growth in children following the cessation of calcium supplementation. J Bone Miner Res 1993;8 Suppl: S154 (abstract).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee WTK, Leung SSF, Leung DMY, Cheng JCY. A follow-up study on the effects of calcium-supplement withdrawal and puberty on bone acquisition of children. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64: 71–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Magee M, Moyer-Mileur L. Bone mineralisation and dietary intake in adolescent females following the cessation of dairy supplementation. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96(9) Suppl:A-56 (abstract).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, Clavien H, Slosman D, Theintz G, et al. Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 1287–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parfitt AM. The two faces of growth: benefits and risks to bone integrity. Osteoporos Int 1994; 4: 382–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nordin BEC. Calcium phosphate and magnesium metabolism: clinical physiology and diagnostic procedures. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1976.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth J. Smart
  • Nigel Leslie Gilchrist
  • John G. Turner
  • Patricia Maguire
  • Rachel March
  • Edith A. Hooke
  • Chris M. Frampton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations