Salt Effects on Bone and Calcium Metabolism
Salt has played a major role in the development of civilizations, and today it is a major and often hidden nutrient in the diets of many ethnic groups. Does it matter? In relation to bone and calcium metabolism the answer is probably yes, but more work is required before we can be definitive about it. Recent data from our unit raises the possibility that excessive salt directly reduces bone mass in postmenopausal women (1). In the following review we first consider possible mechanisms of action of salt on the kidney and bone. We then review what is known of the physiological effects of salt on calcium homeostasis and review the data on bone density. Finally we attempt an epidemiological perspective in terms of the importance of restricting salt intake as a public health measure to reduce osteoporotic fracture.
KeywordsSodium Intake Salt Intake Calcium Metabolism Calcium Excretion Dietary Calcium Intake
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.Constanzo LS, Windhager EE. Effect of PTH, ADH and cyclic AMP on distal tubular Ca and Na reabsorption. Am J Physiol 1980; 239: 478–85.Google Scholar
- 22.Goulding A, Lim PE. Effects of varying dietary salt intake on the fasting urinary excretion of sodium, calcium and hydroxyproline in young women. N Z Med J 1983; 96: 853–4.Google Scholar
- 27.Gold E, Goulding A. High dietary salt intakes lower bone mineral density in ovariectomised rats: a dual x-ray absorptiometry study. Bone 1995;16 Suppl I:l 15S (abstract).Google Scholar
- 28.National Health and Medical Research Council. Recommended dietary intakes for use in Australia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991.Google Scholar
- 32.National Health and Medical Research Council. Report of the working party on sodium in the Australian diet. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1984.Google Scholar
- 34.Devine A, Prince RL, Bell RR. Nutrient intake of postmenopausal women in relation to skeletal and cardiovascular disease. Aust J Nutr Diet 1996; 53: 144–50.Google Scholar
- 35.Department of Community Services and Health. National dietary survey: 1983, no. 2 nutrient intakes, 1st edition. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1987.Google Scholar