Reentry Field Data and Conclusions

  • William Popendorf
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 154)


The history of agricultural harvesters being clinically poisoned from working in a field following a “recent” organophosphate (OP) insecticide application dates back to their earliest use circa 1950. Initially, the documentation was sporadic case reports (Abrams and Leonard 1950; Ingram 1951; Quinby and Lemmon 1958; Milby et al. 1964). Summaries began to be published beginning in 1974 (Milby et al. 1974; Spear et al. 1975; NIOSH 1976; Gunther et al. 1977; Popendorf and Leffingwell 1982; and Honeycutt et al. 1985).


Methyl Parathion Common Logarithm Post Application Arch Environ Contam Toxicol Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams HK, Leonard AR (1950) Toxicology of organic phosphate insecticides. Calif Med 73: 183 – 186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. ACGIH (1991) Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices for 1991–92. Am Conf Governmental Ind Hyg, Cincinnati, OH, pp 48 – 51.Google Scholar
  3. Ames RG, Mengle DC (1991) Analyzing cholinesterase measurements: Assumptions, statistics, and interpretations. J Occup Med 33 (2): 101 – 112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. California Administrative Code (1979) Title 3 (agriculture), article 23 (pesticide worker safety), parts 2479, field worker safety. Sacramento, CA (revised Jan 1979 ).Google Scholar
  5. (CDFA) (1981) California crop and livestock reporting service. Sacramento, CA. CDFA (1972–84). Pesticide use reports, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  6. EPA (1974) Reinstatement of certain existing standards. Fed Reg 39: 16888, May 10, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  7. Gage JG (1967) The significance of blood cholinesterase activity measurements. Residue Reviews 18: 159 – 173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gaines TB (1969) Acute toxicity of pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 14:515– 534.Google Scholar
  9. Gehrich JL, Burkart JA, Takade DY, Turner ER, Allen SD (1976) Final Report: Assessment of leaf surface residues for selected organophosphorus insecticides. Univ Utah Res Inst, Salt Lake City, UT.Google Scholar
  10. Grob D, Harvey AM (1958) Effects in man of the anti-cholinesterase compound sarin (isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate). J Clin Inv 37: 350 – 368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gunther FA, Iwata Y, Carman GE, Smith CA (1977) The citrus reentry problem: Research on its causes and effects, and approaches to its minimization. Residue Reviews 67: 1 – 139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Honeycutt RC, Zweig G, Ragsdale NC (eds) (1985) Dermal exposure related to pesticide use: Discussion of risk assessment. ACS, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  13. Ingram FR (1951) Health hazards associated with use of airplanes for dusting crops with parathion. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Quart 12: 165 – 170.Google Scholar
  14. Iwata Y (1980) Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Reentry field data— a recapitulation. Residue Reviews 75: 127 – 147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Leffingwell JT, Spear RC, Jenkins D (1975) The persistence of ethion and zolone residues on grape foliage in the Central Valley of California. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 3: 49 – 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lentner C (1984) Geigy scientific tables, Vol 3, 8th ed. Ciba-Geigy, West Caldwell, NJ.Google Scholar
  17. Milby TH, Ottoboni F, Mitchell H (1964) Parathion residue poisoning among orchard workers. J Am Med Assoc 189: 351 – 356.Google Scholar
  18. Milby TH, Bailey JB, Davies JE, Guthrie FE, Hays HW, Long KR, May J, Wymer WH (1974) Occupational exposure to pesticides. 0-551-026, Rept of Fed Working Group on Pest Management, US Govt Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  19. Morgan DP (1989) Recognition and management of pesticide poisonings, 4th ed. 0-222-597, US Govt Print Off, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  20. NIOSH (1976) Proceedings of symposium on pesticide residue hazards to farm workers. US Dept HEW Publ 76–191, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Odeh RE, Evans JO (1974) The percentage points for the normal distribution, AS 70. Appl Statist 23: 96 – 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. OSHA (1989) Health standards (29 CFR 1910.1000), US Dept Labor Publ. 2206, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  23. Owens EW, Owens SY (1984) Biophosphate and some health effects. Science 000.Google Scholar
  24. Peoples SA, Maddy KT (1978) Organophosphate pesticide poisoning. West J Med 129: 273 – 277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Popendorf W, Spear RC (1974) Preliminary survey of factors affecting the exposure of harvesters to pesticide residues. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 36: 374 – 380.Google Scholar
  26. Popendorf W, Leffingwell JT (1978) Natural variations in the decay and oxidation of parathion foliar residues. J Agric Food Chem 26: 437 – 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Popendorf W, Leffingwell JT (1982) Regulating OP pesticide residues for farmworker protection. Residue Reviews 82, 125 – 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Popendorf WP (1985) Advances in the unified field model for reentry hazards. In: Honeycutt RC, Zweig G, Ragsdale NC (eds) Dermal exposure related to pesticide use: Discussion of risk assessment. ACS, Washington, DC, pp 323 – 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Popendorf W (1990) Effects of organophosphate insecticide residue variability on reentry intervals. Am J Ind Med 18: 313 – 319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quinby GE, Lemmon AB (1958) Parathion residues as a cause of poisoning in crop workers. J Am Med Assoc 166: 740 – 746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ray R (1972) Occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides among agricultural workers and their families. MS thesis, Univ. Calif, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  32. Rubinstein RY (1981) Simulation and the Monte Carlo method. Wiley, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Spear RC, Milby TH, Jenkins DI (1975) Pesticide residues and fieldworkers. Environ Sci Technol 9: 308 – 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spear RC, Popendorf WJ, Leffingwell JT, Milby TH (1977) Worker poisoning due to paraoxon residue. J Occup Med 19: 411 – 414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Turrell FM (1961) Growth in the photosynthesis area of citrus. Bot Gaz 122: 284 – 298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wichmann BA, Hill ID (1982) An efficient and portable pseudo-random number Generator, AS 183. Appl Stat 31: 188 – 190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wills JH, Dubois KP (1972) The measurement and significance of changes in the cholinesterase activities of erythrocytes and plasma in man and animals. CRC Crit Rev in Toxicol 1: 153 – 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Winterlin W, Kilgore W, Mourer C, Mull R, Walker G, Knaak J, Maddy K (1978) Dislodgeable residues of Dialifor and Phosalone and their oxygen analogs following a reported worker-injury incident. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 20:255– 260.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Popendorf
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational HealthUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations