Global Change and Disturbance in Southern Forest Ecosystems

  • Matthew P. Ayres
  • Gregory A. Reams
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 128)


Global change is apt to introduce a variety of perturbations in forests of the southern United States (Figure 40.1). The consequences will vary depending upon characteristics of the perturbations and the ecosystem. Perturbations of high intensity but low frequency (e.g., fires, hurricanes, and regional epidemics of southern pine beetles) can “result in the sudden mortality of biomass in a community” and be described as disturbances (Huston 1994). At the other extreme, perturbations of low intensity but high frequency (e.g., changes in average temperature, elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric nitrogen deposition) tend to exert sustained but low intensity pressures on ecosystems and are sottletimes referred to as “stress” (Underwood, 1989; Winner, 1994; Milchunas and Lauenroth, 1995), but the effects are not necessarily negative (Teskey, see Chapter 8).


Tropical Cyclone Global Change Gypsy Moth Forest Pest Ecol Manage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen JC, Foltz JL, Dixon WN, Liebhold AM, Colbert JJ, Regniere J, Gray DR, Wilder JW, Christie I (1993) Will the gypsy moth become a pest in Florida? Flor Entom 76:102–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Attiwill PM (1994) The disturbance of forest ecosystems: The ecological basis for conservative management. For Ecol Manage 63:247–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayres MP (1993) Global change, plant defense, and herbivory. In Kareiva PM, Kingsolver JG, Huey RB (Eds) Biotic interactions and global change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  4. Ayres MP, Scriber JM (1994) Local adaptation to regional climates in Papilio canadensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Ecol Mono 64:465–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bazzaz FA (1983) Characteristics of populations in relation to disturbance in natural and man-modified ecosystems. In Mooney HA, Godron M (Eds) Disturbance and ecosystems: Components of response. Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Bazzaz FA (1990) The response of natural ecosystems to the rising global CO2 levels. Ann Rev Ecol System 21:167–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beal JA (1933) Temperature extremes as a factor in the ecology of the southern pine beetle. J For 31:329–336.Google Scholar
  8. Bryant JP, Chapin FS, III, Reichardt PB, Clausen TP (1987) Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance. Oecologia 72:510–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark JS (1991) Disturbance and tree life history on the shifting mosaic landscape. Ecol 72:1102–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen Y, Pastor J (1991) The responses of a forest model to serial correlations of global warming. Ecol 72:1161–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coleman JM (1988) Climatic warming and increased summer aridity in Florida, U.S.A. Clim Change 12:165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coley PD, Bryant JP, Chapin FS. III (1985) Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science 230:895–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cottingham KL, Carpenter SR (1994) Predictive indices of ecosystem resilience in models of north temperate lakes. Ecol 75:2127–2138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dayton PK, Tegner MJ, Parnell PE, Edwards PB (1992) Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecol Mono 62:421–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diaz MF, Quayle RG (1980) The climate of the United States since 1895: Spatial and temporal changes. Mon Wea Rev 108:246–266.Google Scholar
  17. Emanuel KA (1987) The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nature 326:483–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frelich LE, Lorimer CG (1991) Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region. Ecol Mono 61:145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gates DM (1990) Climate change and forests. Tree Physiol 7:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Glitzenstein JS, Harcombe PA, Streng DR (1986) Disturbance, succession, and maintenance of species diversity in an east Texas forest. Ecol Mono 56:243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goulden ML, Munger JW, Fan S, Daube BC, Wofsky SC (1996) Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: Response to interannual climate variability. Science 271:1576–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hogenbirk JC, Wein RW (1992) Temperature effects on seedling emergence from boreal wetland soils: Implications for climate change. Aqua Bot 45:361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huston MA (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am Natur 113:81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huston MA (1994) Biological diversity: The coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  25. Jarrell JD, Elsberry RL (1994) The effect of global climate on tropical cyclones. Paper presented at the 5th Global Warming Conference, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson RH, Lincoln DE (1991) Sagebrush carbon allocation patterns and grasshopper nutrition: The influence of CO2 enrichment and soil mineral nutrition. Oecologia 87:127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jordan DN, Lockaby BG (1990) Time series modelling of relationships between climate and long-term radial growth of loblolly pine. Can J For Res 20:738–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knox JC (1993) Large increases in flood magnitude in response to modest changes in climate. Nature 361:430–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laine K, Henttonen H (1987) Phenolic/nitrogen ratios in the blueberry Vaccinium myrtillus in relation to temperature and microtine density in Finnish Lapland. Oikos 50:389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Larsen JB (1995) Ecological stability of forests and sustainable silviculture. For Ecol Manage 73:85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Larsson S, Wiren A, Lundgren L, Ericsson T (1986) Effects of light and nutrient stress on leaf phenolic chemistry in Salix dasyclados and susceptibility to Galerucella lineola (Coleoptera). Oikos 47:205–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lindroth RL, Kinney KK, Platz CL (1993) Responses of deciduous trees to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: Productivity, phytochemistry, and insect performance. Ecol 74:763–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lorimer CG (1980) Age structure and disturbance history of a southern Appalachian virgin forest. Ecol 61:1169–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lorio PL, Jr. (1986) Growth-differentiation balance: A basis for understanding southern pine beetle-tree interactions. For Ecol Manage 14:259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lorio PL, Jr. (1993) Environmental stress and whole-tree physiology. In Schowalter TD, Filip GM (Eds) Beetle-pathogen interactions in conifer forests. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  36. Luken JO, Hinton AC, Baker DG (1992) Response of woody plant communities in power-line corridors to frequent anthropogenic disturbance. Ecol Appl 2:356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meehl GA, Washington WM (1993) South Asian summer monsoon variability in a model with doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Science 260:1101–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Menges ES, Loucks OL (1984) Modeling a disease-caused patch disturbance: Oak wilt in the midwestern United States. Ecol 65:487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miao SL, Bazzaz FA (1990) Responses to nutrient pulses of two colonizers requiring different disturbance frequencies. Ecol 71:2166–2178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK (1995) Inertia in plant community structure: State changes after cessation of nutrient-enrichment stress. Ecol Appl 5:452–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mladenoff DJ, White MA, Pastor J, Crow TR (1993) Comparing spatial pattern in unaltered old-growth and disturbed forest landscapes. Ecol Appl 3:294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mole S, Ross JAM, Waterman PG (1988) Light-induced variation in phenolic levels in foliage of rain-forest plants. I. Chemical changes. J Chem Ecol 14:1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moore JC, De Ruiter PC, Hunt HW (1993) Influence of productivity on the stability of real and model ecosystems. Science 261:906–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moser JC, Thompson WA (1986) Temperature thresholds related to flight of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. (Col.: Scolytidae). Agron 6:905–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ollinger SV, Aber JD, Lovett GM, Millham SE, Lathrop RG, Ellis JM (1993) A spatial model of atmospheric deposition for the northeastern U.S. Ecol Appl 3:459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Overpeck JT (1996) Warm climate surprises. Science 271:1820–1821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Overpeck JT, Bartlein PJ (1989) Assessing the response of vegetation to future climate change: Ecological response surfaces and paleoecological model validation. In Smith JB, Tirpak DA (Eds) The potential effects of global climate change on the United States-Report to Congress. Volume D-Forests. USEPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  48. Overpeck JT, Rind D, Goldberg R (1990) Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation. Nature 343:51–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Parker IM, Mertens SK, Schemske DW (1993) Distribution of seven native and two exotic plants in a tallgrass prairie in southeastern Wisconsin The importance of human disturbance. Am Midlandnat 130:43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pastor J, Post WM (1988) Response of northern forests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature 334:55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Putz FE, Sharitz RR (1991) Hurricane damage to old-growth forest in Congaree Swamp National Monument, South Carolina, U.S.A. Can J For Res 21:1765–1770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reams GA, Van Deusen PC (1993) Synchronic large-scale disturbances and red spruce growth decline. Can J For Res 23:1361–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reeve JR, Ayres MP, Lorio PL, Jr. (1995) Host suitability, predation, and bark beetle population dynamics. In Cappuccino N, Price PW (Eds) Population dynamics: New approaches and synthesis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  54. Rind DR, Goldberg R, Hansen J, Rosensweig C, Ruedy R (1990) Potential evapotranspiration and the likelihood of future drought. J Geophys Res 95(D7):9983–10004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robertson GP, Crum JR, Ellis BG (1993) The spatial variability of soil resources following long-term disturbance. Oecologia 96:451–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schmidt H, von Storch H (1993) German Bight storms analyzed. Nature 365:791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sheffield RM and Thompson MT (1992) Hurricane Hugo: Effects on South Carolina’s forest resource. USDA, For Serv, Southeast For Exper Stat Res Pap SE-284.Google Scholar
  58. Showalter TD, Turchin P (1993) Southern pine beetle infestation development: Interaction between pine and hardwood basal areas. For Science 39:201–210.Google Scholar
  59. Spurr SH (1956) Natural restocking of forests following the 1938 hurricane in central New England. Ecol 37(3):443–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stout I J, Marion WR (1993) Pine flatwoods and xeric pine forests of the southern (lower) coastal plain. In Martin WH, Boyce SG, Echternacht AC (Eds) Biodiversity of the southeastern United States: Lowland terrestrial communities. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  61. Tilman D (1996) Biodiversity: Population versus ecosystem stability. Ecol 77:350–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Turner MG (1987) Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Underwood AJ (1989) The analysis of stress in natural populations. Biol J Linnean Soc 37:51–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wagner TL, Gagne J A, Sharpe PJH, Coulson RN (1984) A biophysical model of southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), development. Ecol Model 21:125–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ware S, Frost C, Doerr PD (1993) Southern mixed hardwood forest: The former longleaf pine forest. In Martin WH, Boyce SG, Echternacht AC (Eds) Biodiversity of the southeastern United States: Lowland terrestrial communities. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  66. Wigley TML (1985) Impact of extreme events. Nature 316:106–107.Google Scholar
  67. Wigley TML, Jones PD, Kelly PM (1980) Scenario for a warm, high-CO2 world. Nature 283:17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilson SD, Keddy PA (1986) Species competitive ability and position along a natural stress/disturbance gradient. Ecol 67:1236–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Winner WE (1994) Mechanistic analysis of plant responses to air pollution. Ecol Appl 4:651–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew P. Ayres
  • Gregory A. Reams

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations