Environmental Effects on Pine Tree Carbon Budgets and Resistance to Bark Beetles

  • Richard T. Wilkens
  • Matthew P. Ayres
  • Peter L. LorioJr.
  • John D. Hodges
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 128)


Pine trees are a dominant component of primary production in natural and man- aged ecosystems throughout the southeastern United States. Because of the economic importance of pines in the Southeast, the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zirnmerman, Coleoptera: Scolytidae) can cause losses in excess of $236 million per year by attacking and killing pine trees (Price et al., 1992), and is arguably the greatest source of natural disturbance in ecosystems of the southeast. Interactions between pine trees and bark beetles have become a focus of global change research because it has long been hypothesized that bark beetle outbreaks are linked to climatic patterns (Beal 1927; Beal, 1933; Berryman and Ferrel, 1988; Christiansen and Bakke, 1988; Craighead, 1925; Gregoire, 1988; Kalkstein, 1976; King, 1972; Kroll and Reeves, 1978; Michaels, 1984; Raffa, 1988; St. George, 1930; Wyman, 1924). This implies that climate change will probably alter the frequency and intensity of forest disturbance from pest outbreaks. However, the mechanisms by which climatic patterns impact bark beetle population dynamics have remained obscure (Martinat, 1987; Mattson, 1980; Reeve et al., 1995). The development of accurate, physiologically explicit models is an essential first step in assessing the ecological risks associated with global change (Ayres, 1993). The research reported in this chapter was designed to test and refine a model of environmental effects on tree carbon budgets that provides a promising tool for understanding and predicting the effects of global change on interactions between pine trees and the southern pine beetle (SPB) (Figure 32.1).


Secondary Metabolism Bark Beetle Resin Flow Resin Production Moderate Water Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen HL (1987) Forest fertilizers: Nutrient amendment, stand productivity, and environmental impact. J For 85:37–46.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson JM (1991) The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecol Appl 1:326–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayres MP (1993) Plant defense, herbivory, and climate change. In Kareiva PM, Kingsolver JG, Huey RB (Eds) Biotic interactions and global change. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  4. Basset JR (1964) Diameter growth of loblolly pine trees as affected by soil moisture availability. US Forest Service Research Papers. SO-59.Google Scholar
  5. Bazzaz FA (1990) The response of natural ecosystems to the rising global CO2 levels. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 21:167–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beal JA (1927) Weather as a factor in southern pine beetle control. J For 25:741–742.Google Scholar
  7. Beal J A (1933) Temperature extremes as a factor in the ecology of the southern pine beetle. J For 31:329–336.Google Scholar
  8. Berryman AA, Ferrel GT (1988) The fir engraver beetle in western states. In Berryman AA (Ed) Dynamics of forest insect populations: patterns, causes, and implications. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Brown CL, Sommer HE (1992) Shoot growth and histogenesis of trees possessing diverse patterns of shoot development. Am J Bot 79:335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown MW, Nebeker TE, Honea CR (1987) Thinning increases loblolly pine vigor and resistance to bark beetles. South J For 11:28–31.Google Scholar
  11. Bryant JP, Chapin FS III, Reichardt PB, Clausen TP (1987) Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance. Oecologia 72:510–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carmean WH, Hahn JT, Jacobs RD (1989) Site index curves for forest tree species in the eastern United States. USDA, For Ser, Gen Tech Rep NC-128.Google Scholar
  13. Chapin FS III (1991) Effects of multiple environmental stresses on nutrient availability and use. In Mooney HA, Winner WE, Pell EJ, Chu E (Eds) Response of plants to multiple stresses. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  14. Christiansen E, Bakke A (1988) The spruce bark beetle of Eurasia. In: Berryman AA (ed) Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations: Patterns, Causes, and Implications. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Christiansen E, Waring RH, Berryman AA (1987) Resistance of conifers to bark beetle attack: Searching for general relationships. For Ecol Man 22:89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coley PD (1993) Gap size and plant defenses. Tree 8:1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Coster JE, Searcy JL (1981) Site, stand, and host characteristics of southern pine beetle infestations. USDA, Tech Bull Vol 1612.Google Scholar
  18. Craighead FC (1925) Bark beetle epidemics and rainfall deficiency. J Econ Entomol 18:577–584.Google Scholar
  19. Donner SL, Running SW (1986) Water stress response after thinning Pinus contorta stands in Montana. For Sci 32:614–625.Google Scholar
  20. Dudt JF, Shure DJ (1994) The influence of light and nutrient on foliar phenolics and insect herbivory. Ecol 75:86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunn JP, Lorio PL Jr (1993) Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, cambial growth, and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Physiol Chem Ecol 22:948–957.Google Scholar
  22. Friedland AJ, Miller EK, Battles JJ, Thorne JF (1991) Nitrogen deposition, distribution, and cycling in a subalpine spruce—fir forest in the Adirondacks, New York, USA. Biogeochem 14:31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gara RI, Coster JE (1968) Studies on the attack behavior of the southern pine beetle. III. Sequence of tree infestation within stands. Contrib Boyce Thompson Inst 24:77–85.Google Scholar
  24. Gravatt DA (1994) Physiological variation in loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) as related to crown position and stand density. PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  25. Grégoire JC (1988) The greater European spruce beetle. In: Berryman AA (Ed) Dynamics of forest insect populations: Patterns, causes, and implications. Plemum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Haywood JD (1994) Seasonal and cumulative loblolly pine development under two stand density and fertility levels through four growing seasons. USDA, Res Paper, SO-283.Google Scholar
  27. Herms DA, Mattson WJ (1992) The dilemma of plants: To grow or defend. Quart Rev Biol 67:283–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Honkanen T (1995) Plant defenses: The roles of intraplant regulation and resource availability. PhD dissertation, University of Turku, Turku Finland.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson PC, Coster JE (1978) Probability of attack by southern pine beetle in relation to distance form an attractive host tree. For Sci 24:574–580.Google Scholar
  30. Kalkstein LS (1976) Effects of climatic stress upon outbreaks of the southern pine beetle. Env Entomol 5:653–658.Google Scholar
  31. King B (1972) Rainfall and epidemics of the southern pine beetle. Env Entomol 1:279–285.Google Scholar
  32. Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG (1991) The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  33. Kroll JC, Reeves HC (1978) A simple model for predicting annual numbers for southern pine beetle infestations in East Texas. S J Appl For 2:62–64.Google Scholar
  34. Larsson S, Wiren A, Lundgren L, Ericsson T (1986) Effects of light and nutrient stress on leaf phenolic chemistry in Salix dasyclados and susceptibility to Galerucella lineola (Coleoptera). Oikos 47:205–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loomis WE (1932) Growth-differentiation balance vs. carbohydrate nitrogen ratio. Am Soc Hort Sci 29:240–245.Google Scholar
  36. Loomis WE (1953) Growth correlation. In Loomis WE (Ed) Growth and differentiation in plants. The Iowa State College Press, Ames.Google Scholar
  37. Lorio PL Jr (1978) Developing stand risk classes for the southern pine beetle. USDA, For Ser Res Paper, SO–144.Google Scholar
  38. Lorio PL Jr (1980) Loblolly pine stocking levels affect potential for southern pine beetle infestation. S J Appl For 4:162–165.Google Scholar
  39. Lorio PL Jr (1986) Growth-differentiation balance: A basis for understanding southern pine beetle-tree interactions. For Ecol Man 14:259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lorio PL Jr (1993) Environmental stress and whole-tree physiology. In Showalter TD, Filip GM (Eds) Beetle-pathogen interactions in conifer forests. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  41. Lorio PL Jr, Hodges JD (1977) Tree water status affects induced southern pine beetle attack and brood production. USDA For Ser Res Paper, SO–135.Google Scholar
  42. Lorio PL Jr, Mason GN, Autry GL (1982) Stand risk rating for the southern pine beetle: Integrating pest management with forest management. J For 80:212–241.Google Scholar
  43. Lorio PL Jr, Sommers RA (1981) Central Louisiana. In Coster JE, Searcy JL (Eds) Site, stand, and host characteristics of southern pine beetle infestations. USDA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. Lorio PL Jr., Sommers RA, Blanche CA, Hodges JD, Nebeker TE (1990) Modeling pine resistance to bark beetles based on growth and differentiation balance principles. In Dixon RK, Meldahl RS, Ruark GA, Warren WG (Eds) Process modeling of forest growth responses to environmental stress. Timber Press, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  45. Lorio PL Jr, Stephen FM, Paine TD (1995) Environment and ontogeny modify loblolly pine response to induced acute water deficits and bark beetle attack. For Ecol Man 73:97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lovett GM, Kinsman JD (1990) Atmospheric pollutant deposition to high-elevation ecosystems. Atmos Environ 24A:2767–2786.Google Scholar
  47. Martinat PJ (1987) The role of climatic variation and weather in forest insect outbreaks. In: Barbosa P, Schultz JC (Eds) Insect outbreaks. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  48. Mason GN, Lorio PL Jr, Belanger RP, Nettleton WA (1985) Rating the susceptibility of stands to southern pine beetle attack. USDA, Agricultural Handbook, Washington, DC, Volume 645.Google Scholar
  49. Mason RR, Wickman BE, Beckwith RC, Paul HG (1992) Thinning and nitrogen fertilization in a grand fir stand infested with western spruce budworm. Part I: Insect response. For Sci 38:235–251.Google Scholar
  50. Mattson WJ Jr (1980) Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Ann Rev Syst Ecol 11:119–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McNulty SG, Aber JD, McLellan TM, Katt SM (1990) Nitrogen cycling in high elevation forests of the northeastern US in relation to nitrogen deposition. Ambio 19:38–40.Google Scholar
  52. Michaels PJ (1984) Climate and the southern pine beetle in Atlantic Coastal and Piedmont regions. For Sci 30:143–156.Google Scholar
  53. Miller EK, Friedland AJ, Arons EA, Mohnen VA, Battles JJ, Panek JA, Kadlecek J, Johnson AH (1993) Atmospheric deposition to forests along an elevational gradient at Whitface Mountain, NY, U.S.A. Atmos Environ 14:2121–2136.Google Scholar
  54. Milliken GA, Johnson DE (1984) Analysis of messy data volume I: Designed experiments. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Nebeker TE, Hodges JD, Blanche CA (1993) Host response to bark beetle and pathogen colonization. In Schowalter TD, Filip GM (Eds) Beetle-pathogen interactions in conifer forests. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Nebeker TE, Hodges JD, Karr BK, Moehring DM (1985) Thinning practices in southern pines-with pest management recommendations. USDA For Ser, Tech Bull, Vol. 1703.Google Scholar
  57. Olliger SV, Aber JD, Lovett GM, Millham SE, Lathrop RG, Ellis JM (1993) A spatial model of atmospheric deposition for the northeastern US Ecol Appl 3:459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pastor J, Post WM (1988) Response of forests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature 334:55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Price TS, Dogget C, Pye JM, Holmes TP (1992) A history of southern pine beetle outbreaks in the southeastern United States. The Georgia Forestry Commission, Macon, Georgia.Google Scholar
  60. Raffa K (1988) The mountain pine beetle in western North America. In: Berryman AA (Ed) Dynamics of forest insect populations: Patterns, causes, and implications. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Reeve JD, Ayres MP, Lorio PL Jr (1995) Host suitability, predation, and bark beetle population dynamics. In Cappuccino N, Price PW (Eds) Population dynamics: New approaches and synthesis. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  62. Ryan MG (1991) Effects of climate change on plant respiration. Ecol Appl 1:157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Showalter TD, Turchin P (1993) Southern pine beetle infestation development: Interaction between pine and hardwood basal areas. For Sci 39:201–210.Google Scholar
  64. Shure DJ, Wilson LA (1993) Patch-size effects on plant phenolics in successional openings of the southern Appalachians. Ecology 74:55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. St. George RA (1930) Drought-affected and injured trees attractive to bark beetles. J Econ Entomol 23:825–828.Google Scholar
  66. Turchin P (1989) Population consequences of aggregative movement. J Anim Ecol 58:75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Turchin P, Thoeny WT (1993) Quantifying dispersal of southern pine beetles with mark-recapture experiments and a diffusion model. Ecol Appl 3:187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Waring RH (1983) Estimating forest growth and efficiency in relation to tree canopy area. Adv Ecol Res 13:327–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Waring RH, Savage T, Cromack K Jr, Rose C (1992) Thinning and nitrogen fertilization in a grand fir stand infested with western spruce budworm. Part IV: An ecosystem management perspective. For Sci 38:275–286.Google Scholar
  70. Wilkens RT, Shea GO, Halbreich S, Stamp NE (1996b) Resource availability and the trichome defenses of tomato plants. Oecologia 106(2): 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilkens RT, Spoerke JM, Stamp NE (1996a) Differential responses of growth and two soluble phenolics of tomato to resource availability. Ecol 77:247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wyman L (1924) Bark-beetle epidemics and rainfall deficiency. USDA For Serv Bull 8:2–3.Google Scholar
  73. Zahner R, Whitmore FW (1960) Early growth of radically thinned loblolly pine. J For 58:628–634.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. Wilkens
  • Matthew P. Ayres
  • Peter L. LorioJr.
  • John D. Hodges

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations