Summary of Simulated Forest Responses to Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

  • David A. Weinstein
  • Wendell P. CropperJr.
  • Steven G. McNulty
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 128)


During the next century, substantial changes are expected to occur involving such environmental variables as temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), tropospheric ozone, and atmospheric deposition of nutrients such as sulfur and nitrogen (Melillo et al., 1993; Mitchell et al., 1992). These changes, which are expected to vary temporally and spatially, may have profound effects on forest health, productivity, and distribution. Some of these changes may directly affect the physiology of trees, others may alter the susceptibility of trees to such disturbances as fire and flooding, and others may alter the establishment and competitive balance of forest communities. Thus, environmental changes and stresses have the potential to alter not only the function of forest ecosystems, but also the structure, composition, and distribution of forests.


Leaf Area Leaf Area Index None None Tropospheric Ozone Growth Increase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aber JD and Federer CA (1992) A generalized, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, ET and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Oecologia 92:463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ameteis RL, Burkhart HE, Sedaker SM (1988) Experimental design and early analyses for a set of loblolly pine spacing trials. In Ek AR, Shifley SR, Burk TE (Eds) Forest growth modeling and predictions, Vol 2. USDA For Serv, Northcentral For Exper Stat, Gen Tech Rep NC-120.Google Scholar
  3. Beyers JL, Riechers GH, Temple PJ (1992) Effects of long-term ozone exposure and drought on the photosynthetic capacity of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws). New Phytol 122(l):81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burkhart HE, Farrar KD, Amateis RL, Daniels RF (1987) Simulation of individual tree growth and stand development in loblolly pine plantations on cutover, site-prepared areas. FWS-1–87. VA Poly Inst State Univ, Sch For Wildlife Resour, Blacksburg, VA.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, GS (1977) An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Conway TJ, Tans PP, Waterman LS (1991) Atmospheric CO2-modern record, Key Biscayne. In Boden TA, Sepanski RJ, Stoss FW (Eds) Trends ’91: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  7. Cooter EJ, Elder BK, LeDuc SK, Truppi L (1993) General circulation model output for forest climate change research and applications. Gen Tech Rep SE-85. USDA For Ser, Southeast For Exper Stat, Asheveille, NC.Google Scholar
  8. Cropper WP Jr, Gholz HL (1993) Simulation of the carbon dynamics of a Florida slash pine plantation. Ecol Model 66:213–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dixon KR, Luxmoore RJ, Begovich CL (1978) CERES-A model of forest stand biomass dynamics for predicting trace contaminant, nutrient, and water effects. I. Model description. Ecol Model 5:17–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Data Base Retrieval System. World Wide Web address Described in “Forest Service Resource Inventories: An Overview”. Sept 1992. USDA Forest Service. Washington Office: Forest Inventory, Economics, and Recreation Research, W. Brad Smith, FIA WO-Staff.
  11. Field CB, Ruitny A, Luo Y, Malmstrom CM, Randerson JT, Thompson MV (1996) VEMAP: Model shootout at the sub-continental corral. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11(8):313–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kelly M, Taylor GE, Edwards NT, Adams MB, Friend AL (1993) Growth, physiology, and nutrition of loblolly pine seedlings stressed by ozone and acidic precipitation. A summary of the ROPIS-South Project. Water Air Soil Pollut 69:363–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kern JS (1995) Geographic patterns of soil water holding capacity in the contiguous United States. Soil Sci Soc Amer 59:1126–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luxmoore RJ (1989) Modeling chemical transport, uptake, and effects in the soil-plant-litter system. In Johnson DW Van Hook RI (Eds) Biogeochemical cycling processes in Walker Branch watershed. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Marx DH (1988) Southern forest atlas project. In The 81st annual meeting of The Association Dedicated to Air Pollution Control and Hazardous Waste Management (APCA), Dallas, Texas, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. McMurtrie RE (1985) Forest productivity in relation to carbon partitioning and nutrient cycling: A mathematical model. In Cannell MGR and Jackson JE (Eds) Attributes of trees as crop plants. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Abbots Ripton, Huntington, England.Google Scholar
  17. McMurtrie RE, Wolf LJ (1983) Above and below ground growth of forest stands: A carbon budget model. Ann Bot 52:437–448.Google Scholar
  18. McMurtrie RE, Leuning R, Thompson WA, Wheeler AM (1992) A model of the canopy photosynthesis and water use incorporating a mechanistic formulation of leaf CO2 exchange. For Ecol Manage 52:261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Melillo JM, Borchers J, Chaney J, Fisher H, Fox S, Haxeltine A, Janetos A, Kicklighter DW, Kittel TGF, McGuire AD, McKeown R, Neilson R, Nemani R, Ojima DS, Painter T, Pan Y, Parton WJ, Pierce L, Pitelka L, Prentice C, Rizzo B, Rosenbloom NA, Running S, Schimel DS, Sitch S, Smith T (1995) Vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project: Comparing biogeography and biogeochemistry models in a continental-scale study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2 doubling. Global Biogeochem Cycl 9:407–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Melillo JM, McGuire AD, Kicklighter DW, Moore B III, Vorosmarty CJ, Schloss AL (1993) Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature 363:234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mitchell MJ, David MB, Harrison RB (1992) Sulfer dynamics of forest ecosystems. In Howarh RW, Stewart JWB, Ivanov MV (Eds) Sulfur Cycling on the continents: Wetlands Terrestrial Ecosystems and Water Bodies. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  22. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NOAA. World Wide Web adress Federal Building, 151 Patton Avenue, Asheville NC 28801–5001.
  23. NOAA-EPA (1993) Global ecosystems database project. Global ecosystems database version 1.1. User’s guide, documentation, reprints, and digital data. USDOC/NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  24. NCSFNC (1991) Effects of site preparation, fertilization and weed control onthe growth and nutrition of loblolly pine. NCSFNC Report 26. Coll For Res. NC State Univ, Raleigh.Google Scholar
  25. NCSFNC (1993) Six-year growth responses of mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation to N and P fertilization. NCSFNC Report 31. Coll For REs. NC State Univ, Raleigh.Google Scholar
  26. Neilson RP (1995) A model for predicting continental scale vegetation distribution and water balance. Ecol Appl 5(2):362–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nikolov NT, Zeller KF (1992) A solar radiation algorithm for ecosystem dynamic models. Ecol Modeling 61:149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oates K, and Barber SA 1987. Nutrient uptake: A microcomputer program to predict nutrient absorption from soil by roots. J Agron Educ 16:65–68.Google Scholar
  29. Ryan MG (1991) Effects of climate change on plant respiration. Ecol Appl 1:157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schimel DS, Vemap-Participants, Braswell BH (1997) Continental scale variability in ecosystem processes: Model, data, and the role of disturbance. Ecological Monographs 67(2):251–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shugart HH, West DC (1977) Development of an Appalachian deciduous forest succession model and its application to assessment of the impact of the chestnut blight. J Environ Manag 5:161–179.Google Scholar
  32. Temple PJ, Riechers GH, Miller PR, Lennox RW (1993) Growth responses of ponderosa pine to long-term exposure to ozone, wet and dry acidic deposition, and drought. Can J For Res 23(1):59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang TP and Jarvis PG (1990) Description and validation of an array model-MAESTRO. Agri For Meteor 51:257–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yanai R 1994 A steady state model of nutrient uptake accounting for newly grown roots. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1562–1571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhu Z, Evans DL (1992) Mapping the midsouth forest distribution with AVHRR data. J For 90:27–30..Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Weinstein
  • Wendell P. CropperJr.
  • Steven G. McNulty

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations